• Created by: AliceTori
  • Created on: 15-04-17 17:17
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  • Chloroplasts
    • Organelles that carry out photosynthesis
      • Vary in shape and size but typically are disc-shaped, 2-10 micro metres long and 1 micro metre in diameter
    • Chloroplast Envelope
      • A double plasma membrane
      • Highly selective as to what it allows to enter and leave the chloroplast
    • Grana
      • Stacks of up to 100 disc-like structures called thylakoids
        • Some thylakoids have tubular extensions to join up with thylakoids in adjacent grana
      • Thylakoids contain the photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll
      • Where the first stage of photosynthesis occurs (light absorption)
    • Stroma
      • Fluid-filled matrix
      • Where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place (synthesis of sugars)
      • Also contains starch grains
    • Adapted to their function by:
      • granal membranes providing a large surface area
        • this allows for the attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers and enzymes
          • These chemicals are attached to the membrane in a highly ordered fashion
      • the fluid of the stroma contains all the enzymes needed to make sugars in second phase of photosynthesis
      • Chloroplasts contain both DNA and ribosomes
        • this means that they can quickly manufacture some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis




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