China's One Child Policy (Anti-natalist)

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  • China's One Child Policy (Anti-natalist)
    • Why was it introduced?
      • created in 1979 to reduce birth rates
        • caused by a youthful population
          • momentum
      • increased by 500 million from 1950 to 1980
      • would lead to issues with resources, overpopulation, pollution and unemployment
    • How was it enforced?
      • giving financial incentives to those who obeyed the law and taking it back from those with more than one child
        • free childcare, education, healthcare
      • contraception and sterilisation was free and encouraged for woman
      • raising the age of marriage to 22 for men and 20 for women
        • had to receive permission to try for a child
      • abortion laws changed so people could have abortions beyond 24 weeks
      • family planning units and staff actively promoted policy
    • What impact did it have?
      • population growth
        • population was nearly 1,000,000 in 1979 and over 1,300,000 in 2003
        • Natural increase was 6.2 per thousand in 1979 and 6.9 in 2013
      • birth rate
        • decreased from 2.6 to 1.8 live births per woman from 1979 to 2008
      • Negative Impacts
        • Family Structure
          • only children are spoiled (Little Emperor Syndrome)
        • Females and sex selection
          • males are considered more important for work,culture and marriage
            • ratio of 118:100 of men to women
            • leads to many single men
          • female infanticide and forces abortions
        • Population Structure
          • ageing population as fewer babies are born
          • gender imbalance means many men are unable to find partners
        • Rural Populations
          • Having less children means there are less workers on farms
            • increased poverty
    • How has the policy changed since 1990?
      • couples can have 2 children if one parent is an only child
      • families in rural areas can have 2 children if first is a girl
      • ethnic minorities are allowed 2 children

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