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  • Childhood
    • Notions of childhood
      • Modern western
        • Childhood is seen as a golden age, that is exempt from all responsibility, skill and experience
          • Just a time for fun  and free of all worries
        • Complete separate life-stage to adulthood
        • Parents provide and protect their children, so kids don't need a job
      • Cross-Cultural differences
        • Children take responsibility at a young age - in rural areas kids are there for an extra income
        • There is no concept of too young, children handle dangerous task and tools
        • Less value is stressed on obedience from adults
      • Historical differences
        • Aries
          • Said that childhood has changed through the ages
            • In the pre-industrial era childhood do not really exist, children took on the same responsibilities as adults and were seen as economic attributes
            • In the industrial era children where seen as something you could take advantage of and was something that could be expolited
              • They were promised with food and pay but only got hard labour and little pay, many children died due to poor working conditions
                • The upper children wore different clothes to adults and also went to school
            • In the post-industrial era, children were seen as different to adults
              • With help from laws (like the 1889 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act) and the 1880 compulsory school act meant children now did less work and were treated differently
    • The future of childhood
      • Postman
        • Said that childhood was disappearing "at a dazzling speed"
          • Through the media, TV and video games the line between adulthood and childhood is blearing as children act, talk and dress more like adults
            • This leads them to commit crime like an adult and will then receive adult punishments
              • For example, the James Bugler case were 2 10 years old's murdered a 2 year old and they were imprisoned for 20 years
      • Opie
        • Is Postman's revival
          • She says that children culture will always remain as by nature, children will make games and songs that make them distinctively a child
    • Has the position of children improved?
      • The "march to progress" view
        • Today, children are more valued, better cared for (through laws and professions), protected and educated - better than ever before!
          • The government spend £65 billion a year on education
        • Families are now child-centred, with parents work and leisure life revolving around their children
        • Due to education children now have better opportunities are more to aspire to
      • The conflict view
        • Their are inequalities among children, with some getting more chances and opportunities than others due to economic, gender and racial reasons
        • Children have more control and oppression over them
        • Abuse caes  on children have increased, with childline recieveing 20,000 calls a year
        • Parents now control what chidren where and their daily routines
        • Gittins
          • Uses the term "age patriarchy" to describe inequalities between children and adults
            • Men maintain control in the household through violence against women and children
              • Children act-up through drinking and smoking to be seen as adults
              • Adults act-down to to children, belittling them


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