Childhood as a social construction-Wagg

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  • Childhood as a social construction-Wagg
    • History
      • 1850
        • Child labour was common
        • Worked as hard as adults
      • Faced the same legal punishments as adults
        • The idea that children deserved special treatment did not exist
      • Nineteenth Century
        • Fathers and husbands would have been heads of houses
          • Authority of the family
        • Cunningham
          • Saw the social construction of childhood
          • 3 Characteristic of childhood
            • Opposite of adulthood
            • Adult and child lives separate
            • Children had right to happiness
        • Children would have seen little of their parents
        • Children has low status
          • "Seen not heard
    • Cultural/ Social
      • Changnon
        • Yanomami girls help their mothers from young age. By 10 they are responsible for their own house. By 12/13 they are pregnant and married
      • Child soldiers
        • Killed and killing others
        • 2001 and 2004- involved in active conflict in 27 countries
        • Girl soldiers are often subject to rape and sexual violence
      • 1/6 children work
      • 218 million aged 5-17 involved in child labour
      • 216 million in hazardous conditions
      • Not the same freedom
      • take on adult responsibilities as soon as possible
    • Modern Western Childhood
      • Child liberation
        • Behaviour
        • Food
        • Were child can play
        • Discipline
        • Control of children
        • Clothes
      • Families become child-centred
        • Child well fare a priority
        • time spent doubled since 1960's
        • More likely to take interests in child's activities
      • Girls more restricted upbringing than boys
      • Inequalities in social class and ethnicities
        • Not the same experience
      • Child abuse
        • 29% of children living in poverty
      • Divorce
        • New Right
          • Negative effect
      • Bullying in school
      • Some are forced to work as soon as possible
      • Childhood is often referred to as the golden age of happiness and innocence
      • Vast contrast between adults and children
        • Highlighted through entertainment clothing and toys


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