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  • Childhood
    • A01
      • Attachment, caregiving and sexuality all have an influence on relationships.
        • Shaver claimed experiences in romantic relationships during adulthood are of three behaviour systems - attachment, caregiving and sexuality.
      • Attachment is related to the internal working model which suggests adult relationships are a combination of infant relationships.
      • Abuse also influences relationships as it has negative effects on adult functioning such as depression.
        • Childhood abuse has been associated with psychological impairment as research suggests victims suffer difficulty forming healthy adult relationships.
      • Childhood friendships may have an influence of adult relationships as research shows that children learn from their friends.
        • The way they think of themselves becomes determined by experiences that become internalised. Children may develop sense of value from interaction with others which determines approaches to adult relationships.
      • It is important to consider adolescent relationships in late stages of childhood.
        • Attachments shift from parents to peers, relationships in adolescence serve different purposes such as achieving goals.
    • A02
      • Hazan + Shaver
        • Got Ps to do a love quiz in a local newspaper, these described as securely attached described love as being happy, friendly and trusting. These Ps had longer lasting relationships. Insecurely resistant were more doubtful about love and insecure avoidant had more self-doubt. This supports that early attachment types have an effect on later relationships.
      • Koik + Fisher
        • Found individuals who suffered abuse had disorganised attachments which led to difficulty in emotions.
      • Anderson
        • Found abused children have a difficult time developing adult relationships. He found women who had been abused in childhood later displayed negative reactions towards another person (only with people who reminded them of their abusive partner.
          • They concluded that individuals who were abused were likely to display inappropriate behaviour patterns from relationship with abusive partner. This suggests that there is support for this claim that childhood experiences have an influence on adult relationships.
      • Nagle
        • Claims that friendships are a training ground for adult relationships due to close friendships including affection, intimacy and alliance which promotes trust and acceptance which are important in relationships.
      • There may be gender differences in childhood relationships.
        • Richard + Schneider found that girls have more intimate friendships than boys and are more likely to report security in their relationships.
        • Other research shows boys' relationships are more competitive and girls are more likely to be more cooperative. This suggests that there are gender differences but they have been over emphasised in early childhood relationships as the similarities have been overlooked.
      • Madsen
        • Tester the effects of dating behaviour in adolescents on quality of young adults and found low or moderate dating predicted higher-quality adults but dating heavily reported poorer quality. This suggests that dating in adolescence is good for adults but too much can be maladaptive.
      • Simpson
        • Conducted research on 78 Ps during infancy, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood. It was found that those Ps who were securely attached were related to having higher social competent and socialised more as they had more close-friends. This study supports the claim that expression of emotions in adulthood can be related to a person's attachment.
      • Research may appear to indicate that early attachment experiences have a fitted effect on later adult relationships.
        • Children who are insecurely attached at 1 are doomed to experience emotionally unsatisfying relationships. This isn't the case as Ps were still experiencing happy adult relationships, therefore, this goes against research suggesting "you path has been made"


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