Child Language Acquisition

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  • Created by: Em
  • Created on: 14-04-16 19:05
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  • Child language acquisition
    • Holophrastic stage 12-18 months
      • Lexical process is underway
      • Around 50 words used
        • A childs first words relate to their immediate surroundings and are connected to things that children can hear, see, smell, touch and have a social function
          • Classes of objects- dog, shoe, car
            • Specific objects- mummy, daddy
      • Overextension- use the same word for different things that may be related in some way e.g apple for any spherical fruit
        • Underextension- child uses a word in an overly restricted way e.g the word sock may be used for just their sock and no one else's
    • Two word stage 18-24 months
      • At about 18 months children begin to put 2 words together and this is the start of syntax because the words create a grammatical relationship
        • Common combinations-subject + verb= doggie barking, verb + object= give biccy, subject + object= mummy teddy, subject + complement= radio loud
        • To move to telegraphic stage you are likely to struggle with the basic lexis of 50 words hence the telegraphic stage occurs when the reaches 300 words
      • Children as young as 20 months start to use inflections
        • Inflections add to the beginning/ end of a word
          • 3 stages of learning inflections (cruttenden 1979)
        • Plurals (bricks), Possessives ( Dolly's bricks) Past tense (i dropped dolly) Articles (get the bricks)
    • Telegraphic stage 12-36 months
      • Most children will have learned to use all of the vowel sounds by the time they are 30 months
        • Earliest mastered tends to be m, and n (nasal sounds) p and t
        • Last learned tends to be th, v, ch and j
    • Post-telegraphic stage 36+ months
      • More grammatically complex combinations.Uses complex utterances accurately and practices and refines learnt skills
      • 300 words
      • By age 3, children can engage in simple question and answer sessions and can solve basic problems and concepts
      • Children develop the ability to ask questions in the first 3 years
        • Stage 1- 18 months- during the two word stage, children start to use rising intonation to indicate a question
        • Stage 2- between 2 and 3 years- in telegraphic talk, rising intonation is used but they now include "wh" words e.g where doggie?
        • Stage 3- 3+ years- use of subject-verb inversion e.g can i have it? Is mummy coming?
    • Cooing- sounds of discomfort and reflexive actions (0-4 months)
    • Vegetative- comfort sounds and vocal play using open-mouthed vowel sounds (4-6 months)
    • Babbling- repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds (6-12 months)
    • Porto-Words- word-like vocalisations, not matching actual words but used consistently for the same meaning (12+ months)
    • Use of negatives
      • Stage 1- 18 months- use of 'no' or 'not' the beginning of a phrase to create negatives e.g 'no porridge'
        • Stage 2- between 2 and 3- Using 'not' or 'no' before verbs e.g i no want porridge'
          • Stage 3- 3+ years- stop using just 'no' and 'not'. Standardising use of 'can't' and 'don't' as well as adding other contraction e.g 'didn't'


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