Child language acquisition

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  • Child language acquisition
    • Writing
      • Environmental print
        • When children's writing is influenced by print they see e.g. road signs, labels, adverts, stories.
      • Emergent writing
        • When a child begins to show writing-like behaviour
      • The phonics approach
        • Sounding out words
      • The 'look and say' approach
        • Recognising whole words by sight
      • Psycholinguistics approach
        • The child has to work out the meaning of a word rather than being told
      • Barclay's 7 stages of development
        • 1. Scribbling Kids make random marks on the page
        • 2. Mock handwriting Kids draw shapes. Letter like forms appear.
        • 3. Mock letters - kids produce random letters but theres no awareness of matching sounds with symbols
        • 4. Conventional letters - Kids start matching sounds with symbols. Start using initial consonants to represent words.
        • 5. Invented spelling - Most words are spelt phonetically
        • 6.Appropriate spelling - Sentences become more complex
        • 7. Correct spelling
      • Gentry's 5 spelling stages
        • 1. Precommunicative - may use invented symbols. Don't know how letters represent sounds.
        • 2. Semi-phonetic - Begin to learn the correspondence between phonemes and graphemes. Often abbreviate words.
        • 3. Phonetic - Spelling mirrors sound.
        • 4. Transitional - Follows basic accepted patterns of English spelling.
        • 5. Correct - Basic knowledge of spelling system.
      • Kroll's 4 stages of writing development
        • 1. Preparatory stage - Children develop motor skills needed for writing.
        • 2. Consolidation stage - Children write how they speak. They use short declarative statements.
        • 3. Differentiation stage - Use more complex grammar and sentence structures. Punctuation becomes more accurate,
        • 4. Integration stage - Writing becomes more accurate with a wider vocab and more accurate spelling.
      • Rothery's categories
        • Observation/comment - 'One day my mum bought me a book and I was happy'
        • Observation - 'I bought a dog'
        • Recount - usually chronologically organised
        • Report - The bat is a nocturnal animal and it lives in the dark'
        • Narrative - 'Once there was a cat named Whiskers'
    • Speech
      • Theories
        • Behaviourist (Skinner) - Children start as a blank slate and learn to imitate language through positive reinforcement
        • Nativist (Chomsky) - Children have an inbuilt LAD and are pre-programmed with the underlying rules of grammar.
          • Poverty of stimulus - The quality of language children hear from parents isn't high enough to just copy it
        • Cognitive (Piaget & Vygotsky) - Piaget says children need to understand a concept before they can use the language referring to it.
        • Interactionist (Bruner) - Interaction is very important in developing language. Bruner refers to LASS (Language Acquisition Support System)
      • Stages of development
        • Holographic stage (one word stage)
        • Two word stage
        • Telegraphic stage (three of more words)
      • Halliday's functions
        • Instrumental - to get something
        • Regulatory - to make requests or give orders
        • Interactional - to relate to others
        • Personal - to express feelings and views
        • Heuristic - Ask questions
        • Imaginative - to tell stories, jokes etc
        • Representational - to convey information

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