AQA Chemistry Unit 3 (C3) Mindmap

Brief mindmap about all the unit 3 topics in Chemistry unit 3

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  • Chemistry Unit 3
    • Water
      • Hard water
        • Ca, Mg ions
        • Temporary and permanent hardness
        • Benefits: healthy bones, less risk of heart disease
        • Sodium carbonate, ion exchange columns
      • Purifying water
        • Chlorine, Fluoride benefits: reduce tooth decay, prevents diseases
        • Chlorine, Fluoride costs: bone problems, toxic-by- products, cause cancer
        • Mesh screen, chemicals, filter, chlorine
    • Ammonia
      • Haber Process
        • Raw materials: Nitrogen Hydrogen
        • 450ºc,200 atmospheres iron catalyst
        • Fertlisers
        • High pressure favours forward reaction
        • High temperatures favour backward reaction
      • Reversible Reactions
        • Closed Systems
        • Equilibria - exactly at the same rate in each direction
        • If temp raised = endothermic increase,  takes in heat (high yield in endo)
        • If temp lowered = exothermic increase,  releases heat, high yield in exo)
        • Pressure inc = encourage less vol
        • Pressure dec = encourage more vol
    • The Periodic Table
      • Modern
        • Electronic  structure
        • Increase Shielding
        • Increase distance
      • Early
        • Newlands law of Octaves
        • Dmitry Mendeleev
      • Trends
        • Group 1 Alkali Metals
        • Group 7 Halogens
        • Transition Metals
    • Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters
      • Alcohols
        • Functional group =   -OH
        • Fuels and solvents
        • Flammable, reacts with water - neutral sol, reacts with Na - hydrogens, alkoxides
        • Oxidation- ethanoic acid, catalysedby bacteria
      • Carboxylic acids
        • Functional group =   -COOH
        • Soaps detergents esters vinegar
        • reacts with carbonates, alcohols, dissolvesin water, doesn't ionise completely
      • Esters
        • Functional group =    -COO-
        • irritates mucous membrane
        • Perfumes, flavourings
        • alcohol + carboxylic acid -> water + ester
    • Calculating  energy change
      • Q=mc?t
      • balanced equation,  stick diagrams overall change = energy in - energy out
      • Hydrogen fuel cell benefits: clean, no pollutant gases, renewable
      • Hydrogen fuel cell costs: hard to store H+, explosive, specialised machines
    • Analysis and Quantitative Chemistry
      • Anions
        • Flame tests
        • Precipitates: react NaOH
      • Cations
        • Carbonates react with acids to give off C02
        • Halide ions - add nitric acid, silver nitrate solution - precipiate
        • Sulfate ions - add sulfuric acid, barium chloride sol = white precipitate
      • Titrations
        • acid + alkali = neutral solution
        • Calc - balance question, give info, mole, ratio, conc

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