Chemistry: Structure and bonding

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  • Created by: Catherine
  • Created on: 20-04-13 13:57
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  • Chemistry: Structure and Bonding
    • chemical bonding
      • covalent bonding
        • non metal elements sharing electrons
      • ionic bonding
        • metals and non metals lose and gain electtrons
          • non metals gain electrons
            • this results in charged ions
          • metals lose electtrons
            • this results in charged ions
    • Ionic bonding
      • holds ions together in giant structures
        • electrostatic forces in all directions
        • e.g. sodium chloride is a giant cubic lattice
        • ratio of ions depends on charge of the ions
          • positive and negative must balance
    • covalent bonding
      • non metals need to gain electrons to become stable
        • they do this by sharing electrons
        • atoms joined together by covalent bonds form molecules
        • Group 7 elements need to gain one electron
          • Group 6 elements need to gain two electrons, and so on
      • a covalent bond acts only between the atoms it connects
        • so many covalent substances consist of small molecules
      • some atoms can form several bonds (e.g. carbon)
        • these join together in giant covalent structures
          • giant covalent structures are sometimes referred to as macromolecules
    • metals
      • atoms in a metallic element are all the same size
      • metallic atoms form giant structures
        • arranged in regular patterns
      • metallic bonding
        • Chemistry: Structure and Bonding
          • chemical bonding
            • covalent bonding
              • non metal elements sharing electrons
            • ionic bonding
              • metals and non metals lose and gain electtrons
                • non metals gain electrons
                  • metals lose electtrons
              • Ionic bonding
                • holds ions together in giant structures
                  • electrostatic forces in all directions
                  • e.g. sodium chloride is a giant cubic lattice
                  • ratio of ions depends on charge of the ions
                    • positive and negative must balance
              • covalent bonding
                • non metals need to gain electrons to become stable
                  • they do this by sharing electrons
                  • atoms joined together by covalent bonds form molecules
                  • Group 7 elements need to gain one electron
                    • Group 6 elements need to gain two electrons, and so on
                • a covalent bond acts only between the atoms it connects
                  • so many covalent substances consist of small molecules
                • some atoms can form several bonds (e.g. carbon)
                  • these join together in giant covalent structures
                    • giant covalent structures are sometimes referred to as macromolecules
              • metals
                • atoms in a metallic element are all the same size
                • metallic atoms form giant structures
                  • arranged in regular patterns
                • metallic bonding
                  • atoms pack together and outer electrons delocalise
                    • this produce a sea of moving electrons between atoms
                    • delocalised electrons strongly attract the positive ions and hold the structure together
            • atoms pack together and outer electrons delocalise
              • this produce a sea of moving electrons between atoms
              • delocalised electrons strongly attract the positive ions and hold the structure together

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