chemistry part 1 additional science

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  • Created by: Connor
  • Created on: 12-02-14 18:36
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  • CHEMISTRY PART 1
    • the atom
      • neutrons: mass(1) neutral in the nucelus
      • protons: mass(1) postitive in the nucleaus
      • electrons: no mass negative found in energy levels surrounding nucleus
      • the mass number is proton+neutron the proton number is the number of protons and electrons
    • particles
      • an atom is the smallest particle that matter is made up of
      • a molecule is 2 or more atoms that are chemically bonded together
      • an element is only made up of one type of atom
      • a compound is 2 ore more different types of elements chemically bonded together
    • electronic structure diagram
      • 1st energy level can hold 2 the others can hold 8
      • elements in the same groups have similar chemical properties
    • bonding
      • ionic bonding occurs when a metal donates an electron(s) to a non metal
      • covalent bonding occurs when 2 or more non-metals share electrons to reach a stable noble gas configuration
    • macro molecules
      • giant covalent structures
      • in graphite each carbon atom us bonded to 3 others, free to slide over each other, has free delcoalised electron to carry a current
      • diamond is covanelty bonded to 4 other carob atom, alot of energy is required to break it, does not conduct electricity as there is no free delocalised electrons
    • ions
      • charged atoms due to the loosing or gaining of electrons
      • Na becomes Na+ because it looses 1 electron
      • Mg becomes Mg-2 because it gains 2 electrons
    • structure of a metal
      • the outer shell of a metal atom is delocalised, this means the atoms are positively charged ions
      • positively charged ions in a sea of negative electrons
      • metallic bond is a force of attraction between ions and electrons
      • metals are soft because they are arranged in layers and they can slide over each other
      • covalent compounds are formed when non-metal atoms react together
        • they will conduct electricity if you dissolve them in water or heat them as this will free the ions to carry a current
    • nanoscience
      • the study of substances from 1 to 100 nanometers
      • they make excellent catalysts because they have a high surface area to volume ration
    • simple molecules
      • they can be a solid, liquid or a gas they have a low melting and boiling point
      • they have weak intermolecular forces of attraction they do not conduct electricty
    • isotopes
      • atoms of the same element that have different mass and neutron numbers
      • O16 has 2 more neutrons in its nucleus than O18
      • Ar= relative atomic mass=mass number
      • Mr= relative formular mass= sum of Ar's
    • chromotography
      • separates a mixture of liquids between a stationary phase to a mobile phase(different solubility's) the result is a chromatogram
      • the retention time is how long it takes to move through the stationary phase
      • advantages: accurate, sensitive, quick
    • percentage yield: the amount of product we make compared with the amount we should have

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