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    • Structure and Bonding
      • Chemical Bonding
        • Elements react to form compounds by gaining/losing electrons
        • Atoms in Group 1 combine with atoms in Group 7 to form ions
      • Ionic Bonding
        • Held together by strong forces
        • Ions form a giant structure called a lattice
      • Formulae of Ionic Compound
        • Charges on the ions in ionic compounds always cancel each other out
        • Formula shows the ratio of ions present
      • Covalent Bonding
        • Formed when 2 atoms share a pair of electrons
        • Number of covalent atoms formed depends on number of electrons needed to achieve a stable electronic structure
        • Most contain simple molecules, but some have giant covalent structures
      • Metals
        • Atoms in metals are closely packed and arranged in regular layers
        • Electrons in the highest energy level are delocalised. Strong electrostatic forces between the electrons and positive ions hold the metal together
    • Structures and Properties
      • Giant Ionic Structures
      • Simple Molecules
      • Giant Covalent Structures
      • Giant Metallic Structures
      • The Properties of Polymers
      • Nanoscience
    • How much?
      • The mass of atoms
      • Masses of atoms and molecules
      • Percentages and formulae
      • Equations and Calculations
      • Reversible Reactions
      • Analysing Substances
    • Rates and Energy
      • How fast?
      • Collision Theory and Surface Area
      • Effect of Temperature
      • Effect of Concentration or Pressure
      • Effect of Catalysts
      • Exothermic and Endothermic
      • Energy and Reversible Reactions
    • Salts and Electrolysis
      • Acids and Alkalis
      • Making salts from metals and bases
      • Making salts from solutions
      • Electrolysis
      • Changes at the electrodes
      • Extraction of aluminium
      • Electrolysis of brine
      • Electroplating


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