Chemistry C1 part 1

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  • Chemistry C1 part 1
    • Inside the atom
      • In centre of the atom is the nucleus containing protons and neutrons
        • protons, neutrons and electrons are subatomic particles
          • protons/neutrons weigh 1
            • atomic number is protons. atomic no + neutrons = atomic mass
          • electrons weigh almost 0
            • electrons are arranged in shells. 2:8:18
      • Crude Oil
        • A mixture of mostly hydrocarbons
        • Seperated in a liebig condenser
        • crude oil is heated at bottom and it evaporates and rises. different sized molecules condense at different temperatures and levels in the liebig condenser
    • element patterns
      • elements with similar patterns are in groups vertically 1 to 8
        • elements react depending on how many electrons are on their outer shell. 8 = stable
      • rows are periods
    • Combining atoms
      • ionic bonds
        • non metal and a metal
          • electrons are transferred from metal to non metal
            • metal is positive charge and non metal is negative
            • attraction holds them together
      • covalent bonds
        • non metal elements
          • form compounds by sharing electrons
    • chemical equations
      • must be balanced
      • state symbols
        • (s) solid
        • (l) liquid
        • (g) gas
        • (aq) aqueous which means dissolved in water
    • Building with limestone
      • calcium carbonate (CaCo3 (s) )
      • extracted in a quarry
      • used for buildings, cement, mortar, concrete, iron, steel, glass
    • Heating limestone
      • CaCO3(s) -> CaO + CO2
        • CaO (s) is lime
        • CaO (s) + H20 (l) -> Ca(OH)2
          • Limewater
            • limewater goes cloudy in presence of carbon dioxide
      • cement is limestone and clay
      • mortar is cement, sand and water
      • concrete is cement, sand, gravel and water
    • Metals from ores
      • rocks mined for metals are called ores
      • metals are obtained by heating the ore with coke in a blast furnace. this is smelting.
        • metal oxide + carbon -> metal + carbon dioxide
      • reduction is removing oxygen
      • Alkenes
        • ethene C2H4
        • Propene C3H6
        • Have a double covalent C=C bond
          • reactive because C=C bond can break
        • Amount of Hs = double Cs
      • metals more reactive than carbon are reduced through electrolysis
        • molten metal compound -> molten metal + oxygen gas
    • Extracting iron
      • most iron is made into steel which is strong and cheap
        • extracted in a blast furnace
          • iron ore, coke and limestone are put in top of furnace
            • carbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide
              • carbon dioxide + carbon -> carbon monoxide
                • carbon monoxide reduces iron oxide to iron
                  • iron oxide + carbon monoxide -> carbon + carbon dioxide
          • air is blown at the bottom
            • carbon in coke burns
    • Metals are useful
      • Transition metals are mainly stronger than non transition metals
      • Good structural materials
      • Metals can bend because their layers of atoms can slide over eachother
      • They conduct because their outer shells electrons move between layers
      • Alloys are metals with other elements to make the metal stronger
        • Smart alloys return to their original shape when heated
    • Iron and Steel
      • Cast iron is blast furnace iron with more impurities removed and has 3 to 4% carbon that makes it brittle
      • Pure iron is too soft
      • Steel has up to 2% carbon and is stronger than iron because carbon upsets particles regular pattern
        • amount of carbon depends on use
    • Copper
      • good electrical conductor
        • unreactive
      • Alloys include bronze and brass
      • ore is chalcopyrite CuFeS2
        • To extract copper, first ore is concentrated then its roasted then smelting
          • roasted ore is smelted in a furnace with limestone and sand. process gives molten copper and sulphur dioxide. unwanted iron is removed by reacting limestone and sand to form slag
            • copper is purified through electrolysis
              • theres a pure copper anode negative and impure negative one
                • in copper sulphate solution
    • Aluminium and Titanium
      • Aluminium oxide reduced by electrolysis which is why aluminium is expensive
        • Bauxite is aluminium ore
        • Aluminium oxide -> aluminium + oxygen
      • They react with oxygens to provide a tough layer of oxide
      • Titanium is more dense than aluminium and stronger and more resistant to corrosion
        • Titanium ore is Rutile
        • Titanium dioxide is converted into titanium tetrachloride and reacted with magnesium to get pure titanium
          • Expensive
    • A burning Problem
      • When a fuel burns combustion takes place
        • hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
          • This adds to global warming
      • Smoke particles add to global dimming
      • Sulphur in fossil fuels cause acid rain and breathing problems
    • Reducing air pollution
      • sulphur compounds can be removed from fuels
        • Sulphur causes acid rain
      • hydrogens and biofules can be used as car fuel
      • Catalytic converters in cars convert harmful gases into harmless ones
    • Cracking
      • breaking up big alkanes into an alkane and and alkene
      • Heat alkane until it waggles and a C-C bond breaks
      • Eg. C10H22 -> C7H16 + C3H6
    • Making Ethanol
      • Alcohols are compounds with a hydroxyl group (-OH)
      • C2H5OH
      • biofuel
        • made from sugar by adding yeast to sugar dissolved in water causing fermentation and changes sugar to ethanol
      • solvent
    • Alkanes
      • single covalent bond C-C-
      • Methane CH4
      • Ethane C2H6
      • Propane C3H8
        • Butane C4H10
      • amount of Hs = Cs x 2 + 2
    • Polymers from alkenes
      • Polymers are alkenes linked in a long chain
      • Plastics
      • Made by heating a monomer eg. ethene and heating it under pressure. it makes double covalent bonds open up and join onto other monomers
  • Metals and The Environment
    • extracting metal uses fossil fuels for energy and carbon causing pollution and shortage on fossil fuels
    • Ores are in environmentally sensitive areas
    • Recycle

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