Haloalkanes

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  • Haloalkanes
    • Formula=    CnH(2n+1)X
    • Names
      • Prefixes:     Fluoro-     Chloro-     Bromo-     Iodo-
      • Same as other organic compounds
    • Properties
      • Insoluble in H2O- (CX bond is not polar enough)
      • Boiling point
        • Increases with chain length
        • Increases down group 7
    • Reactions
      • C-X is a polar bond. Attracts Nuleophiles
      • Nucleophilic Substitution
        • With OH- ion produces: Alcohol and X-
          • Cold OH- in water
        • With CN- ion produces: Nitrile and X-
        • With NH3 produces: Primary Amine and NH4X
      • Elimination
        • Add KOH produces: Alkene KBr and H20
        • Hot OH- in ethanol
        • OH- acts as a base
      • Primary- Substitution Secondary- Both    Tertiary- Elimination
    • Formation
      • Free radical substitution
        • Alkane + Halogen = Haloalkane and Hydrogen Halide
        • Many Isomers formed for long chain alkanes
      • Initiation
        • Propagation
          • Termination
            • Stable compound formed
          • Produce 1 free radical and 1 product of the reaction
        • Requires UV light. Forms 2 free radicals

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