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    • Structure & Bonding
      • Chemical bonding requires either gaining or losing electrons
        • Atoms that lose electrons are positively charged ions
        • Gain electrons means negative charge ions
      • When atoms share pairs of electrons they have a covalent bond
      • Ionic compounds are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction.
    • Structure, properties & Uses
      • Ionic compounds can conducts electricity if melted/dissolved in water
      • Properties are determined by structure
        • Properties of thermosoftening and thermosetting polymers depend on how they are made
      • Nano-science refers to structures 1-100 nm in size and of the order of a few hundred atoms
      • Ionic compounds have normal compounds (giant ionic lattices), high melting and boiling points
    • Atomic structure, analysis & Quantitative chemistry
      • Atoms of the same element can have different number of neutrons
      • Relative formula mass (M) and Relative atomic mass (A) allows you to compare number of particles.
      • Yield: amount of products obtained
      • To identify elements and compounds, use instrumental mesthods.
      • To know the masses of reactants and products, use a balanced symbol equation
      • Reversible reaction: products of the reaction, can react to form original reactants.
    • Rates of reactions.
      • Catalysts speed up equations without being used up
      • Amount of reactant used / time
        • Amount of product formed / time
      • Reactions only occur if particles collide
        • More energy, particles collide more,  more frequent collisions
      • Activation energy: minimum amount of energy particles need to react
    • Exothermic & Endothermic
      • Exothermic give energy to the surrounding
      • Endothermic take energy from the surroundings
      • If a reversible reaction is exothermic on way, other way will be endothermic
    • Acids, bases & Salts
      • Metal oxides and hydroxides are bases
        • Soluble hydroxides are called alkalis
        • Ammonia makes an alkaline solution to produce ammonium salts
      • Hydrogen ions  (H+) makes solution acidic
      • Hydrooxide ions (OH-) makes solutions alkaline
      • Neutralisation:  Hydrogen  ions react with hydroxide ions to form water
      • Make make soluble salt react acids with metals/insoluble bases/alkalis
        • Salt solutions can be crystallised to form solid salt
      • Insoluble salt can be made by mixing solution of ions so precipitation forms
    • Electrolysis
      • For electrons to move freely within a solution liquid an ionic substance must be melted in water
      • aluminium is made by  through electrolysis of a molten mixture of aluminium oxide and cryolite
      • half equations show the reaction at each electrode
      • electrolysis of sodium chloride solution forms hydrogen, sodium hydroxide and chlorine
      • OILRIG: Oxidation is gain of electrons  Reduction is loss
      • Break down substance with electrical current.
        • +ve ions move to -ve electrode
        • -ve ions move to +ve electrode






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