• Created by: mel
  • Created on: 21-05-13 17:27
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  • C1.1
    • Fundemental ideas
      • Atoms, elements and compounds.
        • Everything is made out of atoms.
        • Elements contain only one type of atom.
        • Compounds contain more than one type of atom.
        • An atom has a tiny nucleus in its centre, surrounded by electrons.
        • Agrouping  of two or more atoms bonded together is called a molecule.
          • Chemical bonds hold the hydrogen and oygen atoms together in water molecule. Water is an example of a compound.
        • There are about 100 different elements.
        • Elements are shown in the periodic table.
      • Atomic structure
        • Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons
          • Protons and neutrons are inside of the atoms nucleus.
          • Electrons are outside of the nucleus, on energy levels.
        • Protons and electrons have equal and opposite charges.
          • Protons had a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge.
          • Neutrons have no electrical charge. They are neutral.
        • Atomic number= number of protons/ electrons.
          • Mass number= number of protons + neutrons.
        • Atoms are arranged in the periodic table in order of their atomic number.
      • The arrangement of electrons in atoms
        • The electrons  in an atom are arranged in energy levels or shells.
        • Atoms  with the same number of electrons in their outermost shell belong in the same group of the periodic table.
        • The number of electrons in the outermost shell of an element's atoms determines the way that element reacts.
        • The atoms of the unreactive noble gases(in group 0) all have very stable      arrangements of electrons
        • There is a maximum amount of electrons you are allowed on energy levels.
          • On the second and third energy levels you are allowed a maximum of 8 electrons, per energy level.
          • On the fourth energy level you are allowed a maximum of 18 electrons.
          • On the first energy level you are only allowed 2 electrons
      • Forming  bonds
        • Sometimes atoms react together by transferring electrons to form chemical bonds.
          • This happens when metals react with non metals.
            • If the reacting atoms are all non-metals, then the atoms share electrons to form chemical bonds.
            • When  metals react with no-metals, charged particles called ions are formed.
        • When atoms from different elements react together they make compounds.
          • The formula of a compound    shows the number and type of atoms that have bonded together to make that compound.
        • Chemical reactions
          • When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. There are two types of joining.
            • Ionic bonding
              • Compounds formed from metals and non metals.
                • Metals lose electrons to form positive ions.
            • Covalent bonding
              • Compounds formed from non-metals consist of molecules,
                • The electrons are shared.


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