Chemistry 1B

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  • Chemistry 1B
    • CRACKING-(thermal decomposition reaction) [splitting up long-chain hydrocarbons,to smaller useful ones.]
      • Heated up/mixed w/ steam/ passed over catalyst
        • ALKENES + unsaturated HC produced
      • Long chain HC=thick-not useful.
    • ALKENES
      • CnH2n
      • C=C double-bond
      • Liquid / decolourises in Bromine water
      • Unsaturated: double bonds can open up SO more bonds can be made
    • MONOMERS(small alkenes)
      • join together(bonds open up)- POLYMERISATION
        • form large molecules = POLYMERS
          • Different properties affected by: temp/pressure/presence catalyst
            • Cheap &re-usable
            • Doesn't ROT/ Not Biodegradable
    • PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL
      • C2H5OH
        • 1) Ethene+ Steam
          • Faster/ pure prdt/no waste prdt/continous process
          • Lots of heat/energy needed./Non-renewable/high cost
        • 2) FERMENTATION [Sugar from plants broken by enzymes- SUGAR+YEAST]
          • CO2 produced/ slow reaction-longer
          • cheap/less energy/renewable
    • VEGETABLE OILS {from plants/fruit/seeds}
      • For FOOD+FUEL
        • Provides a lot of ENERGY
        • HIGH B.P - cooks faster
          • Different flavour/texture
      • PRESSING [crushed/pressed between metal plates-impurities removed]
      • DISTILLATION[plants  in water-boiled-evaporation-oil collected from condensation]
      • HARDENING/HYDROGENATION[VO turns solid-spreadable]
        • Hydrogen+Nickel Catalyst 60
          • HIGH M.P
        • Double bond converted into single bonds
        • PARTIALLY- cheaper/longer shelf life
          • Trans fat- bad for health
    • EARTH
      • Core/mantle/crust/atmosphere (compare w/egg)
      • TECTONIC PLATES-cracked pieces of the crust and mantle
        • Move due to CONVECTION CURRENTS-radioactive decay
        • Plate boundaries-when TC meet-hard to predict earthquakes etc
      • WEGNER-all continents fitted like a jigsaw. Same pattern of rocks/same animals/no landbridges found on seabed.

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