Chemistry - protons, neutrons and eletrons

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  • Chemistry - protons, neutrons and electrons
    • electrons orbit the nucleus.
    • Shells of an atom represent different energy levels.
    • Electrons occupy the lowest energy level possible.
    • group eight or zero - unreactive and are stable.
    • when elements form bonds they are trying to become stable - either have to gain or lose electrons.
    • Two types of bond making
      • Ionic bonding - a bond between a metal and a non metal.  Metal looses an electron and non metal gains one.
        • Both particles are called ions.
        • Metal ions form positively charged ions and non metals form negatively charged ions.
      • Covalent bonds - formed between atoms in non metals.  They share bonds.  Outer most shells overlap.
        • No ions are formed instead molecules are formed.
    • Law of conservation of mass -  mass cannot be created or destroyed.
    • atoms have a net neutral charge.
      • contains positive protons and negative electrons.
      • negatives cancel out the positives.
    • periodic table represents the different elements.
    • Periodic table is international - understood by scientists of different languages


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