Chemistry - C1a

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  • Chemistry P1a
    • Fundamental Ideas of Chemistry
      • The number of protons and electrons in an atom is the same therefore it has no charge.
      • An element only has one type of atom in it.
      • Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
      • Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom.
      • All elements in a group have the same number of electrons on the outer shell.
        • Group 0 (noble gases) have a complete outer shell which makes them nonreactive.
          • Ionic bonding occurs between a metal and a non metal. An atom is given to the other element to complete the outer shell.
    • Metals and their uses.
      • Ores contain enough metal to make it worthwhile to extract the metal from it.
        • Reduction - the oxygen within the ore is removed using carbon .
          • The position of the metal in the reactivity series determines whether it can be reacted with carbon.
      • Iron straight form the furnace is only 96% pure.
        • The impure iron is used as cast iron - used to make ornamental railings but is brittle.
    • Crude Oils and Fuels
      • Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
      • Alkanes - CnH2n+2
        • Chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms.
          • Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane
      • Properties of Crude Oils
        • The shorter the molecules, the more runny the hydrocarbon is.
        • The shorter to molecules, the quicker they turn to gas.
        • The shorter the molecules, the more flammable it is.
      • Fractional Distillation - the fractionating column works continuously with the heated crude oil at the bottom. The vapourised oil rises up the column and the various fractions are constantly tapped off at the different levels they condense.
      • Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain.
        • Oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain by forming dilute nitric acid in clouds.
          • Acid rain causes lakes to become acidic.
            • Kills animals, plants and fish.
          • Kills trees, damages limestone buildings and ruins stone statues.
          • Governments have put international agreements in place to reduce emissons.
            • Sulfur emissions can be reduced.
              • Most of the sulfur can be removed before it is burnt.
              • Acid gas scrubbers take the harmful gases out.


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