Chemistry 1 a

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  • Atoms and Elements
    • The nucleus is in the middle of the atom.  It is positively charged
      • It contains protons and neutrons
        • protons are positively charged
        • Neutrons have no charge
    • Electrons move around the nucleus.  They are negatively charged.
      • Electrons are tiny and cover a lot of space
        • they occupy shells around the nucleus
    • atoms have no overall charge
      • there is always the same number of protons and electrons
        • Electrons
          • electrons always occupy shells (energy levels)
            • the lowest energy levels are always filled first
              • 1=2  2=8   3=8
              • electrons are happier with a full outer shell and are then noble gasses in group 0
                • In most atoms the outer shell is not full and this makes the atom want to react to fill it
      • if electrons are added or removed the atom becomes charged and then an ion.
    • If a substance only contains one type of atom its called an element
      • There is about 100 types of elements
    • The Periodic Table
      • similar properties form columns
        • Vertical columns are called groups
          • Groups have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
      • find an element that doesn't balance and pencil in a number to try and sort it out.
      • Getting metals from rocks
        • metals can be extracted from its ore chemically by reduction using carbon
          • oxygen is removed
            • you can extract copper from a solution using a displacement reaction
              • copper sulphate + iron - iron sulphate + copper
        • they can be extracted using electrolysis
        • most metals need to be extracted from their ores using a chemical reaction.
        • Electrolysis
          • breaking down of a substance using electricity
          • electrons are taken away by the positive anode and given away by the negative cathode as ions gain or lose electrons they become atoms or molecules and are released
    • Compounds
      • when atoms join together to make compounds
      • bonding is taking and sharing electrons
      • a metal and a non metal consists of ions
      • the metals lose electrons to form positive ions.
        • the non metals gain electrons to for negative ions
          • non-metals consist of molecules.  each atom shares an electron with another atom this is a covalent  bond
      • the opposite charges of the ions mean that they're strongly attached to each other.  This is called Ionic bonding
        • compounds can be small or giant lattices.


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