Chemistry -- Chemical Bonding

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  • Two Sp2 orbitals overlap to form a single C-C bond called a sigma bond.
    • Rotation can occur around a sigma bond.
    • Formation of a sigma bond
      • Covalent Bonding
        • Sharing Electrons
        • Dative Covalent bonding
          • A dative covalent bond forms when the shared electrons in the covalent bond come from only one of the bonded elements.
            • Examples:
              • NH4+
              • H3O+
              • NH3BF3
            • Dative bond acts like an ordinary covalent bond when thinking about the shape of NH4+; its tetrahedral.
        • In terms of Orbital Overlap
          • The atomic orbitals overlap they form molecular orbitals:
            • Sp3
              • 4 Sp3 hybrid orbitals will lead to a tetrahedral shape in molecules.
            • Sp2
              • Three Sp2 hybrid orbitals lead to a trigonal planar molecules
            • Sp
              • Two sp hybrid orbitals will lead to a linear shape in molecules
              • Three orbitals can hybridise to give three new orbitals:
                • Leaving 1 p orbital unhybridised
  • The Pi bond is formed by sideways overlap of two p orbitals on each carbon atom forming a Pi bond above and below the plane of the molecule.
    • Formation of Pi bond
      • Covalent Bonding
        • Sharing Electrons
        • Dative Covalent bonding
          • A dative covalent bond forms when the shared electrons in the covalent bond come from only one of the bonded elements.
            • Examples:
              • NH4+
              • H3O+
              • NH3BF3
            • Dative bond acts like an ordinary covalent bond when thinking about the shape of NH4+; its tetrahedral.
        • In terms of Orbital Overlap
          • The atomic orbitals overlap they form molecular orbitals:
            • Sp3
              • 4 Sp3 hybrid orbitals will lead to a tetrahedral shape in molecules.
            • Sp2
              • Three Sp2 hybrid orbitals lead to a trigonal planar molecules
            • Sp
              • Two sp hybrid orbitals will lead to a linear shape in molecules
              • Three orbitals can hybridise to give three new orbitals:
                • Leaving 1 p orbital unhybridised
    • The Pi bond is weaker than the sigma bond

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