Chemistry- C2

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  • Chemistry - C2 ~ Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
    • Pure & Impure
      • Pure substance; Has 1 element or compound, single sharp melting point
      • Impure substance; melts over a range of temperatures
    • Ionic Bonding
      • Metal & non-metal
      • Strong electrostatic force of  attraction between oppositely charged ions
    • Formulae
      • Relative atomic mass
      • Empirical formula
      • Relative formula mass
      • Relative molecular mass
    • Separating mixtures
      • Filtration; separates a solid from a liquid, insoluble substance forms residue, soluble substance goes through filter paper as filtrate
      • Crystallisation; Solvent evaporates, solution is heated, produces dry sample of soluble substance
      • Simple distillation; evaporation -> cooling -> condensing
      • Fractional distillation; evaporation-> cooling at different temperatures -> condensing
      • Chromatography; mobile phase, stationary phase, substances distributed between phases
        • Rf = Distance travelled by substance/ distance travelled by solvent
    • Metals & Non-Metals
      • Metal elements; form + ions, metallic bonding, solid at room temperature (mercury is liquid), shiny, malleable, good conductors
      • Non-metal elements; Form - ions, covalent bonding, about half are solid, half are gas (bromine is liquid, dull, brittle, insulators
    • Carbon allotropes
      • Diamond; 4 covalent bonds per C atom, hard, no delocalised electrons, giant covalent lattice, doesn't conduct electricity
      • Graphite; 3 covalent bonds per C atom, slippery & soft, delocalised electrons, layered structure with weak forces between layers, good conductor of electricity
    • Bonding, Structure, change of state
      • Metals; Strong, conduct electricity when solid or liquid, high M & B points
      • Ionic Compounds; Strong, conduct electricity when molten or dissolved, high M & B points
      • Simple molecules; weak, conduct electricity, low M & B points
      • Giant covalent structures; strong, doesnt conduct electricity (except graphite), high M & B points
    • Nanoparticle
      • 1nm to 100nm across (just a few hundred atoms
      • Very large surface area to volume ratio

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