Chemistry 1

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  • Chemistry 1
    • 1.1 Metals and Non-Metals
      • In the Periodic Table there are two categories: metals and non-metals
        • Metals are on the left of the stepped line
          • Metals are:
            • good conductor of heat
            • shiny
            • high density
            • malleable
            • ductile
            • sonorous
            • good conductor of electricity
          • Most metals have high melting points
            • usually solid at 20 degrees
        • Non-Metals are on the right of the stepped line
          • Brittle
          • not sonorous
          • low density
          • dull
          • poor conductor of heat
          • poor conductor of electricity
          • Many non-metals have low boiling points
            • for example: oxygen is a gas as 20 degrees
        • Elements near the stepped line are called Metaloids
          • The have propoties of metals and non-metals
      • Properties
        • Physical properties: things you can observe and measure
        • Chemical properties: chemical reactions
          • Most metal and non-metals react with oxygen
            • Metal: magnesium + oxygen = magnesium oxide
            • Non-metal: sulfur + oxygen = sulfur dioxide
    • 1.2 Groups and Periods
      • Vertical columns: groups
        • similar properties
          • like melting point, boiling point and density
      • Horizontal rows: periods
        • patterns in the properties
          • like melting point
    • 1.3 The elements in Group 1
      • on the left side of stepped line: metals
        • Alkali Metals
      • Melting point decrease from top to bottom of Group 1
        • Boiling point decreases from top to bottom of Group 1
      • They are very reactive
        • React with with water
          • Reaction make Hydrogen Gas
            • Reactions get more vigorous from top to bottom
          • Also makes alkaline solution so universal indicator turns purple
    • 1.4 The elements in Group 7
      • Group 7: chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine
        • Also called Halogens
          • Low melting points
      • Are reactive
        • They all react with iron
          • Example: iron + chlorine = iron chloride
            • Very vigorous
          • Reactions get less vigorous going down the group
      • Example of displacement reaction: chlorine + potassium bromide = potassium chloride + bromine
        • Elements nearer the top of Group 7 displace elements lower in the group
    • 1.5 The elements in Group 0
      • Include: helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon
        • Also called Noble Gases
      • very low melting and boiling points
      • Colourless gases
      • They glow bright when high-voltage electricity passes through them
        • Commonly used in shop signs and balloons
      • take part in very few reactions
        • Unreactive
        • From top to bottom, the noble gases get slightly more reactive
      • Found in the atmosphere mixed with other gases

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