C3 - Chemicals in Our Lives

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  • C3 - Chemicals in Our Lives
    • Continental Drift
      • Magma
        • Circles to & from centre of magnetic field in Earth's core
          • Tectonic plates slowly move apart
            • Magma solidifies
              • Forming rocks
            • Forming volcanoes
        • Contains an ion
      • Proved by:
        • Continent shapes
        • Fossils
        • Zebra Stripes
    • Diet & Diabetes
      • Type 1
        • Develops at young age
        • Insulin producing cells are destroyed in pancreas
      • Type 2
        • Develops at elderly age
        • More insulin needed than usual to maintain blood glucose levels
        • Cells in body don't respond to hormone (insulin) normally
      • Balanced Diet
        • Contains:
          • Fruit & veg
          • Starchy foods
        • Low in fatty foods
      • Obesety
        • Caused by:
          • Eating too much food
          • Lack of exercise
    • Salt Extracting
      • Salt mining
        • Rock salt drilled, blasted & refined
          • Machinery brings salt to surface
      • Solution mining
        • Water injected into ground
          • Dissolves salt in water
            • Making brine
            • Pressure forces brine to surface
              • Brine heated to evaporate water
      • From the Sea
        • Salt water heated to evaporate water
          • Purest salt (nearly 100%)
      • Used for:
        • Food presevation
        • Food flavouring
        • Making roads less icy
        • Making saleen in drip bags
    • Salt in the Diet
      • Health issues
        • High blood pressure
          • Strokes
          • Heath attacks
        • Stomach cancer
        • Osteoporosis
      • GDA (adult) = 8.4g
    • Electrolysis of Salt
      • Separation of a compound using electricity
        • Compound must be soluble
        • Hydrogen
        • Chlorine
        • Sodium hydroxide
      • Environmental impact
        • Sometimes uses fossil fuels
          • Releases pollutants    ( CO2 ) into atmpsphere
        • Asbestos used in industry
          • Causes lung cancer
        • Mercury sometimes used
          • Toxic
    • Chlorination
      • Water treatment
        • Kills microorganisma
        • Removes bad tastes and smells
      • Made from  Hydrogen Chloride
        • Oxidise
          • 4HCl + O2   --> 2Cl2 + 2H2O
      • Risks
        • Chlorinated hydrocarbons are carcinogenic (cancer causing)
        • Chlorine gas irritates respiratory system
        • Liquid chlorine causes severe chemical burns on eyes or skin
    • Alkalis
      • Compound forming hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
      • Neutralisation reaction
        • Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water (neutral)
        • Acid + Metal Carbonate = Metal Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
        • Acid + Metal Hydroxide = Metal Salt + Water
    • Life Cycle Assessment
      • Deciding if product is suitable to be made -viable alternatives
      • Cradle
        • Ude
          • Grave
            • Energy needed to dispose
              • Space needed to dispose
          • Energy needed for use
            • Energy needed to maintain
              • Water used to maintain
        • Raw materials
          • Processing of materials
            • Water used in manufacture

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