Chemical Bonds

A mindmap on various types of bonds and their angles

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  • Unit 1 - Bonds
    • Covalent
      • A  pair of electrons shared between 2 atoms
      • Relatively strong bonds
      • Non-metallic atoms only
      • Untitled
      • Dative Covalent
        • The shared pair of electrons originates from one of the atoms in the molecule, as opposed to 2
    • Ionic
      • Between metallic (positive) and non-metallic (negative) atoms
      • A lattice of oppositely charged ions
      • High electrostatic forces give these compounds a high melting point
      • Conduct electricity when molten
    • Metallic
      • Positively charged metallic ions surrounded by a "sea" of free electrons
      • Metallic ions only
      • Conduct electricity as the current can move freely through the delocalised electrons
    • Bond Angles
      • Linear - 2 electron pairs
        • Example - CO2
        • Angle - 180 degrees
      • Trigonal Planar - 3 electron pairs
        • Angle - Flat, 120 degrees
        • Example - Boron Triflouride
      • Tetrahedral - 4 electron pairs
        • Example -  CH4
        • Angle -  109.5 degrees
      • Trigonal Pyramidal - 3 electron pairs 1 lone pair
        • Example - NH3
        • Angle - 107 degrees
      • Trigonal Bipyramidal - 5 electron pairs
        • Example - PCl5
        • Angles - 90, 120 and 180 degrees
      • Bent - 2 electron pairs 2 lone pairs
        • Example - H2O
        • Angle - 109.5 (104.5) degrees

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