Chemical Bonds

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  • Created by: Chamy
  • Created on: 01-05-13 00:38
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  • Chemical Bonds
    • Ionic
      • Cations
        • Metal atoms lose electrons to form positively charged ions
      • Anions
        • Non metal atoms gain electrons to form negatively charged ions.
      • Ions  in an ionic compound are arranged in a regular way, called a lattice structure.
        • There are strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions.
          • High boiling and melting points, usually solids at room temperature
            • Untitled
        • Conduct electricity when aqueous or molten as only these times are charged particles freely able to move
    • Covalent
      • Simple molecular covalent substances
        • Gases such as: hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
        • Liquids such as: water
        • Substances have low melting and boiling points because there are only weak forces between neighboring molecules
        • Not gained or lost an electrons, so, no charged particles, that can move around so poor conductors of electricity
      • Giant molecular covalent substances
        • Billions of atoms all joined together by covalent bonds
        • high melting and boiling points
        • All atoms are joined to other atoms with strong covalent bonds- a lot of heat energy is needed to break these bonds.
        • Carbon can form two different types of giant molecular structure- diamond & graphite
          • Diamond is very hard
          • Graphite is very soft
          • Diamond
            • Very hard because all atoms are joined together with strong covalent bonds. Diamonds are used to make cutting tools.
            • Does not conduct electricity as there are no free electrons or charged particles to move around
          • Graphite
            • Easily rubs away in layers because although the covalent bonds are strong, there are only weak forces between layers. It is soft enough to be used as a lubricant.
            • Conducts electricity because there is one electron from each carbon atom that can move along the layers. This means that graphite can be used to make electrodes.


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