Chemical Bonding

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  • Chemical Bonding
    • Bond breaking is an endothermic process
      • Bond forming is an exothermic process
      • Melting and Boiling involve breaking bonds between particles. The stronger the bonds that have to be broken, the more energy it takes in, so the higher the melting/boiling point
    • Structure and Bonding
      • Metallic Bonding occurs between the atoms of metals
      • Ionic Bonding occurs between oppositely charged ions
      • Covalent Bonding occurs when two atoms share a pair of electrons
      • Intermolecular forces are weaker bonds that attract individual molecules to one another. These forces prevent molecules from spreading out away from one another when in a solid or liquid
    • Giant Structures
      • A substance has a giant structure if the bonding exists throughout the whole crystal
      • Giant Ionic Structures
        • Strong Ionic bonds between oppositely charged ions extend everywhere through a giant ionic lattice structure. Strongs ionic bonds have to be broken to achieve melting or boiling
      • Giant Metallic Structures
        • Strong metallic bonds between metal atoms extend everywhere through a giant metallic lattice structure. Strong metallic bonds have to be broken to achieve melting or boiling
      • Giant Covalent Structures (Giant Molecular)
        • A network of strong covalent bonds extends everywhere through a crystal of the substance. Strong covalent bonds between non-metal atoms have to be broken to achieve melting or boiling
    • Simple Molecular Structures
      • Substances made of separate molecules, each of which contains a specific number of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
        • In a solid or a liquid, the individual molecules are attracted to each other by much weaker intermolecular forces
          • Only the weak intermolecular forces have to be broken to achieve melting or boiling. The strong covalent bonds remain intact, even in the gas phase
    • Ionic Bonding
      • 'Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions'
      • Compound Ions
        • Hydroxide: OH-
        • Carbonate: CO3 2-
        • Sulphate: SO4 2-
        • Nitrate: NO3-
        • Ammonium: NH4+
      • There are no molecules in ionic compounds
      • 'An ionic lattice is a regular array of alternating positive and negative ions'
    • Properties of Ionic Compounds
      • High Melting and Boiling Points
        • Due to the strong electrostatic attraction between the ions in a giant lattice
          • A lot of energy is needed to overcome the strong attractive force between oppositely charged ions and so enable the ions to move around
            • The higher  the charge on the ions, the stronger the attractive forces they will exert in an ionic lattice and so have higher melting and boiling points
      • Many ionic compounds are soluble in water
        • Water is polar and when a substance like sodium chloride is added to it, to the polar water molecules are attracted to the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions.
          • The ions then bond by electrostatic attraction (ion-dipole bonds) to the water molecules. The ions are then said to be hydrated



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