Chemical Industry

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  • Chemical Industry
    • equilibrium in industrial processes
    • nitrogen chemistry
      • bonding in nitrogen compounds
        • test for nirate ions (NO3-)- add sodium hydroxide and Devarda's alloy - ammonia given off
        • test for ammonia ions, NH4+ - add sodium hydroxide and heat gently - ammonia gas given off
    • rate of chemical reactions
      • Arrhenius equation
      • rate equation:rate = k[species in rate-determining step]
        • order of reaction
          • first order: rate = k[A], units of k =
          • second order: rate = k[A][B] or rate = k[A], units of k =
          • orders from half lives
          • orders from rate-concentration graphs
            • rate-determining steps
      • measuring rates of reactions
        • volume of gas produced
        • mass lost as gas
        • colorimetry
    • the operation of a chemical manufacturing process
      • health and safety
      • increasing pressure- favours side with fewer gas molecules - Kc does not change
        • determining equilibrium constants
          • increasing temperature - favours endothermic reaction - Kc changes
            • catalysts - no effect
            • increasing pressure- favours side with fewer gas molecules - Kc does not change
              • determining equilibrium constants
                • increasing temperature - favours endothermic reaction - Kc changes
                  • catalysts - no effect
                • the units of Kc depends on the expression for Kc
          • the units of Kc depends on the expression for Kc
      • costs of the process
        • fixed costs: costs incurred independent of product (e.g. building, insurance)
        • variable costs:specific to unit production (e.g. raw materials)
      • co-product - a secondary product that can also produce profit
      • by-product - unwanted product with no profitability

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