C4 - Chemical Changes

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  • Chemical Changes
    • Acids and Bases
      • pH scale goes from acidic to alkali (0-14)
      • pH can be measured
        • Universal indicatior
        • A pH probe attached to a pH meter
      • Acids form H+ ions in water
      • base is a substance with a pH greater that7
      • Alkalis form OH- ins in water
      • Acid + base == salt + water
        • H+(aq)+OH-(aq) == H2O (l)
    • Strong / Weak acids
      • strong acids ionise completely
        • all particle dissociate to release H+ ions
        • More reactive than weak acids
      • weak acid don't ionise completely
        • a few particles dissociate to release H+ ions
        • these are reversible and set up equilibriums
      • pH is the measure of concentration of H+ ions in acids or alkalis
      • Factor H+ ion concentration = 10'-x
        • x = difference in pH
    • Reaction of Acids
      • acid + metal oxide == salt + water
      • Acid + metal carbonate == salt + water + carbon dioxide
      • acid + metal hydroxide == salt + water
    • Redox Reactions
      • if electrons are transferred its a redox reacrion
      • Displacement reactions
        • a more reactive metal will replace a less reactive metal from its compound
          • iron + copper sulphate == iron sulphate + copper
            • Iron is more reactive than copper
            • Copper was displaced by iron

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