Chemical bonds, ionic, covalent and metallic

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  • Created on: 07-01-18 17:27
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  • Chemical bonds, ionic, covalent and metallic
    • When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds. These bonds between atoms are strong.
      • Covalently bonded substances may consist of small molecules.
        • Some covalently bonded substances have very large molecules, such as polymers or have giant covalent structures, such as diamond and silicon dioxide.
    • Metal atoms lose electrons to become positively charged ions.
      • Non-metal atoms gain electrons to become negatively charged ions.
    • For ionic bonding, the particles are oppositely charged ions.
      • The ions produced by metals in Groups 1 and 2 and by non-metals in Groups 6 and 7 have the electronic structure of a noble gas.
        • The electron transfer during the formation of an ionic compound can be represented by a dot and cross diagram
    • Metals consist of giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern.
      • The electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms are delocalised and so are free to move through the whole structure.
        • The metal is held together by the strong forces of attraction between the positive nuclei and the delocalised electrons.
          • Metals are good conductors of electricity and thermal energy.
    • An ionic compound is a giant structure of ions.
      • Ionic compounds are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
        • These forces act in all directions in the lattice and this is called ionic bonding.

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