Chemical Analysis

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  • Chemical Analysis
    • Ions
      • Positive Ions
        • Flame Tests
          • Li+ : red
          • Na+ : yellow
          • K+ : lilac
          • Ca2+ : orange-red
          • Cu2+ : blue-green
          • Ba2+ : green
        • Ammonium Ions: NH4+
          • Litmus paper
            • Red to blue
        • Metal Ions
          • Dilute NaOH is added and precipitate is formed
            • Al3+ : white
              • Excess
                • Zn2+ : white
                • Al3+ : precipitate dissolves
                • Zn2+ : precipitate dissolves
            • Ca2+ : white
            • Cu2+ : blue
            • Fe2+ : green
            • Fe3+ : brown
            • Zn2+ : white
          • Dilute NH3 is added and precipitate is formed
            • Al3+ : white
            • Zn2+ : white
              • Excess
                • Zn2+ : precipitate dissolves
                • Cu2+ : dark blue
            • Fe2+ : green
            • Cu2+ : blue
              • Excess
                • Zn2+ : precipitate dissolves
                • Cu2+ : dark blue
            • Fe3+ : brown
      • Negative Ions
        • Carbonate Ions: CO32-
          • Limewater
            • Colourless to cloudy
        • Sulfate Ions: SO42-
          • Dilute BaCl2 is added and white precipitate is formed
        • Halide Ions
          • Dilute HNO3 and AgNO3 is added and precipitate is formed
            • Cl- : white
            • Br- : cream
            • I- : yellow
        • Nitrate Ions
          • Dilute NaOH  and Al is added and NH4 is produced
            • Litmus paper
              • Red to blue
    • Gases
      • H2
        • Lit splint produces popping sound
      • O2
        • Glowing splint relights
      • CO2
        • Limewater turns cloudy
      • NH4
        • Red litmus paper turns blue
      • Cl2
        • Damp blue litmus paper turns red then bleaches white
        • White starch-iodide turns blue-black
    • Emission Spectroscopy
      • Comparison of a vaporised metal's spectrum with other reference spectra

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