Chemical Analysis

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  • Chemical Analysis
    • Ions
      • Cations (+)
        • Flame Tests
          • Li+ : crimson red
          • Na+ : yellow-orange
          • K+ : lilac
          • Ca2+ : orange-red
          • Cu2+ : green
          • Cu+ : blue
        • Ammonium Ions: NH4+
          • Litmus paper goes from blue to red to white
        • Metal Ions
          • Dilute NaOH is added and precipitate is formed
            • Al3+ : white
              • Excess : precipitate dissolves
            • Mg2+ : white
              • Excess : precipitate dissolves
            • Cu2+ : blue
            • Fe2+ : pale green
            • Fe3+ : orange-brown
            • Ca2+ : white
        • Anions (-)
          • Carbonate Ions: CO32-
            • HCl added
              • Limewater
                • Colourless to cloudy
          • Sulfate Ions: SO42-
            • Dilute HCl and BaCl2 is added and white precipitate is formed
          • Halide Ions
            • Dilute HNO3 and AgNO3 is added and precipitate is formed
              • Cl- : white
              • Br- : cream
              • I- : yellow
          • Nitrate Ions
            • Dilute NaOH  and Al is added and NH4 is produced
              • Litmus paper goes from blue to red to white
      • Gases
        • H2
          • Lit splint produces popping sound
        • O2
          • Glowing splint relights
        • CO2
          • Limewater turns cloudy
        • NH4
          • Red litmus paper turns blue
        • Cl2
          • Damp blue litmus paper turns red then bleaches white
          • White starch-iodide turns blue-black
      • Flame Emission Spectroscopy
        • Comparison of a vaporised metal's spectrum with other reference spectra

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