Chem T3 - Making insoluble salts & rules of solubility

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  • Rules of solubility
    • Making insoluble salts - precipitation reactions
      • 2 soluble salts reacted to make an insoluble salt
      • 1.) Add 1 spatula lead nitrate to test tube, add deionised water (so no other ions about) to dissolve it
      • 2.) Shake thoroughly so all lead nitrate dissolved, in separate test tube do the same with 1 spatula sodium chloride
      • 3.)Tip 2 solutions into  beaker, stir so all mixed together, lead chloride should precipitate out (form solid)
      • 4.) Put folded filter paper into filter funnel put funnel in conical flask
      • 5.) Pour contents of beaker into middle of filter paper make sure doesn't go above filter paper or some solid may dribble down side
      • 6.) Swill out beaker with deionised water & tip this into filter paper so all precipitate is out of beaker
      • 7.) Rinse contents of filter paper with deionised water so all soluble sodium nitrate is washed away
      • 8.) Scrape lead chloride into fresh filter paper & leave to dry in oven or desiccator
    • 1.) Common salts sodium, potassium & ammonium always soluble
    • 2.) All nitrates always soluble
    • 3.) Common chlorides soluble except silver & lead chloride
    • 4.) Common sulfates soluble except lead, barium & calcium sulfate
    • 5.) Common carbonates & hydroxides insoluble except sodium, potassium & ammonium ones


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