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  • Chechnya
    • History
      • Chechnya was a Soviet state up until 1991
        • After the USSR broke up in 1991, Chechnya declared independence
      • Chechen's were deported after collaborating with Nazi's during WW2
        • Khrushchev allowed them back into Russia, but they were heavily discriminated against
      • Russia and Yeltsin felt that Chechen independence would lead to a domino effect of states leaving
        • They also wanted control of the Chechen oil supply
      • The collapse of the Chechen economy led to drug trafficking and lawlessness that spread into Russia
    • First Chechnya War tactics
      • Russia invaded on December 27th 1994
        • However Russia still relied on the Soviet Doctrine from WW2
          • As a result the Russian's military tactics weren't suited for combat in mountains
          • Russia fought on 2 principles
            • If a city was defended, leave it
            • If a city wasn't defended, march and take it
      • because of the lack of an urban doctrine, Russia struggled to take cities such as Grozny
        • Russia didn't take lessons of defensive advantage
          • Need 4 attackers for every 1 defender
        • Inexperienced soldiers didn't know how to take a building
        • Didn't understand the need to starve a city and do reconnaissance
        • Only 30 urban commanders
          • 1 small Spetsnaz unit
            • (Anti-terror, not invasion)
      • Chechen tactics
        • Chechen's were prepared to defend a city over 4 months
          • They used USSR experience from WW2
          • Rebels were well trained and split into small units
          • They used tunnels
          • Cities had 3 rings of defence
          • Cities had various anti-tank positions
        • Chechen's could listen into Russian comms, but use their own language to communicate
        • Chechen's shot to wound as to draw out other soldiers
        • Guerrilla tactics were used by the Chechen's
        • Chechen's took steps to gain international support
          • Allowed journalists access to the country
            • Russia disregarded the media entirely
    • First Chechnya War fighting
      • Russia entered Chechnya with inadequately trained troops and numbers
        • Chechen's had 60k soldiers waiting
      • Russia lost 100 vehicles on the first day
        • 1.5k casualties within the first month
      • Russia failed to starve Chechen guerrilla fighters
        • However the war spiraled into a series of human rights abuses
      • Chechnya controlled the press well
        • Media coverage saw a loss of support for the war effort in Russia
        • Russia had no experience with free press after the fall of the USSR
      • There was a ceasefire in 1996
        • 100k casualties in total
          • 80k were civilian
        • Russia was exposed as weak


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