A&P - CHD and Blood Pressure

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  • A&P
    • CHD
      • Arteriosclerosis
        • loss of elasticity, thickening/hardening of arteries reduces effficiency to vasodilate/constrict and so regulates BP & Vascular Shunt Mechanism. 
        • Smoking will cause this process to occur earlier in life and incrases chance of blood clots by 2-4 times.
      • Heart Attack
        • When there is total restriction of O2/blood to a part of the heart muscle wall usually causing permanent damage.
        • more likely to occur as a result of blood clots from larger coronary arteries that get stuck in smaller ones and plug shut
        • can result in death if the damaged area is big enough to prevent the heart muscle functioning adequately.
      • Angina
        • Partial Blockage of coronary artery causing intense chest pain when there is inadequate levels of O2 or blood the heart muscle wall. 
        • Arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis in coronary arteries can lead to angina, can occur at rest or especially during exercise.
      • Atherosclerosis
        • Form of arteriosclerosis, involves changes in lining of arteries. 
        • High levels of cholesterol & fat deposits accumulate within arterial walls forming fatty plaque which leads to a progressive narrowing of the lumen which increases the likelihood of blood clots forming and can restrict blood flow and lead to high BP.
    • Blood Pressure
      • Systolic and Diastolic Values
        • Value for a person suffering from hypertension would be 140mmHg/90mmHg but 160/95 is more commonly regarded as real hypertension.
        • Every blood pressure reading consists of two numbers or levels. They are shown as one number on top of the other.
        • The first (or top) number is your systolic blood pressure. It is the highest level your blood pressure reaches when your heart beats.
        • The second (or bottom) number is your diastolic blood pressure. It is the lowest level your blood pressure reaches as your heart relaxes between beats.
      • Blood Pressure Changes
        • During the day BP fluctuates, decreases when we sleep, increases during stress, increases with age, increases in hot temperatures, decreases in cold temps, decreases with body size
        • during exercise systolic BP increases as intensity increases and plateus during sub-max exercise.
        • During exercise diastolic BP changes little during sub-maximal exercise, during gross muscle activities diastolic BP may fall and then increase slightly as exercise intensity reaches maximum levels.
        • People with hypertension; systolic pressure rises to similar high values of normal individuals without any undue pressure on the heart and they therefore do not need to fear extreme high blood pressure during exercise
      • What is it? When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure.
        • If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your arteries (and your heart) and this may lead to heart attacks and strokes.
  • loss of elasticity, thickening/hardening of arteries reduces effficiency to vasodilate/constrict and so regulates BP & Vascular Shunt Mechanism. 


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