Charles I up to the Exclusion Crisis

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  • Charles II
    • Restoration Settlement
      • 1660 (after the Declaration of Breda)
      • Cavalier Parliament
        • Seeking revenge, not reconciliation.
        • Weaken the restrictions on the King's power.
        • Militia Act of 1661- King alone was in supreme command of the army.
        • Revised Triennial Act 1664- no provisions for the calling of parliament every 3 years.
        • Act of Uniformity 1662- conditions so stringent that 1,800 clergymen had to be expelled because they didn't adhere.
      • Retained the 1641 Triennial Act.
      • Abolition of Prerogative Courts
      • Parliamentary control of the milita
    • Clarendon Code
      • Corporation Act 1661- an oath had to be sworn to the Anglican Church to hold municipal office.
      • Act of Uniformity 1662- Book of Common Prayer compulsory in all churches.
      • Conventicle Act 1664- forbade more than 5 members of a dissenting group from meeting.
      • Five-Mile Act 1665- dissenting ministers could not live within 5 miles of conforming villages.
    • Finance
      • Charles funded by £1.2 million/year from income tax.
      • 1672- Charles unable to pay his debts after 3rd Anglo-Dutch War- Stop of the Exchequer.
    • Suspicions about Charles
      • 1665- 2nd Anglo-Dutch War: Charles aided Louis XIV against the Protestant Dutch- the English lost.
      • 1665- the Plague in London was thought to be caused by Catholics.
        • 1666- the Great Fire of London also seemed to be caused by Catholics.
      • 1667- Cabal included two Catholic advisers.
      • 1668- Charles' brother James announced his conversion to Catholicism.
      • Charles signed the Treaty of Dover in 1670- Charles would declare his Catholicism, and Louis would give him enough money not to call any parliaments.
    • Religion
      • Declaration of Indulgence 1672- included Catholics and allowed Charles to 'dispense with law'
      • Declaration removed by parliament in exchange for a grant to pay for the war.
        • 1672- Charles unable to pay his debts after 3rd Anglo-Dutch War- Stop of the Exchequer.
      • Test Act 1678- holders of public office could not be Catholic- DoY had to resign.
      • The Popish Plot- 1678
        • Titus Oates spread a rumour that there was a Catholic plot to remove Charles II and replace him with James II.
        • Confirmed by James' secretary, who had seemingly been corresponding with a member of Louis XIV's court.
        • Exclusion Crisis
          • Whigs wanted to remove James from succession and replace him w/Duke of Monmouth.
          • Charles believed it was a direct attack on divine right.
          • 1679- First Exclusion Bill went through parliament- resulted in dissolution.
          • 1680- Second Exclusion Bill pushed through HoC but defeated in the HoL.
          • Charles made a secret agreement with Louis XIV in 1675.
            • If parliament was suspended by Charles, he would recieve £100,000
              • By 1681, Charles was financially independent.
          • Parliament of 1681 held in Oxford away from Whig influence- dissolved after MPs tried to push through a third Exclusion Bill.
        • Danby's power could be questioned by the Whigs
          • Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in 1679 to save Danby- new elections produced an anti-Danby majority.
            • anti-Danby= Whigs

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