Charists

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  • Charists
    • First Petition
      • National Petition was enormous
        • Contained 1,280,000 signatures, presented by Fielden and Attwood (both MPs)
          • Vote of 235 to 46 refused to consider it
            • The general strike to follow was cancelled then dissolved
      • Newport Rising 1839
        • Local Chartist groups took matter into their own hands
          • Monmouth-shire, South Wales. Chartist miners marched on Newport to free a worker from prison
            • Arrived late and troops were,waiting,Frost charged with treason
              • 1840, Lovett and O'Connor and many chartists were in prison
    • Second Petiton
      • 1840 O'Connor founded National Charter Association
        • 48,000 members in 2 years
          • 1842, unemploy-ment rose
            • Chartists collected over 3 million signatures
              • Vote of 287 to 49 refused would not debate to accept
      • Plug Plots
        • Again turned to violence and a wave of strikes began
          • Caused chaos by pulling plugs out in factories and pumps in mines grounding industry to  halt
            • Believed it was the only wa to get their voice heard
              • Strikers were imprisioned/ transported, hunger forced many back to work
    • Pre-Movements
      • 1838 Lovett and Place drew up a People's Charter
        • Hoped to use moral not physical force to get Parliament to accept the 6 points of Charter
          • O'Connor believed the only way to get fairer laws was to give working class people the vote
            • Domestic outworkers, craftsmen, factory workers were all Chartists
              • Some turned to Chartism when times were hard, or in protest
                • Strong in fast growing populated areas and traditional industries dying out
                  • Many believed in rightness of Charists demands
                    • Many joined for econmic reasons
                      • All believed it was the only solution to their long term problems
                        • Lovett led the moral force charists
                          • O'Connor led the physical force charists
                            • Agreed in 1838 they would collect signatueres in support but if governement rejected would turn to a general strike
                          • Agreed in 1838 they would collect signatueres in support but if governement rejected would turn to a general strike
                    • All believed it was the only solution to their long term problems
                      • Lovett led the moral force charists
                        • O'Connor led the physical force charists
      • Final Petition
        • 1847, many businesses collapsed, mass un-employment, thousands deepened on the workhouse
          • 1848 O'Connor announced 6 million signatures for a new petition
            • Government took chartists seriously because they wanted to avoid revolutions in France and other European countries
              • Asked O'Connor to deliver petition to Parliament privately which he agreed
                • Was unsure if he could manage to control the crowds
                  • Government found out  there were only 2 million signatures and less people than expected marched
                    • Many were forgeries and petition became a joke
        • Pre-Petition
          • Lovett and Collins set up The National Association of the UK for Promoting the Political and Social Improvement of the People
            • 1843 Lovett established a Sunday School which became educational
              • Some became missionaries preaching that every christian should be a Chartists and would be better christians
                • O'Connor wanted to help the poor own their own land. Set up Land Plan
                  • Women support the men by making banners and tea at meetings
                    • People who wrote memoirs were upset that they had not paid more attention to women
      • Overall Outcome
        • Older charitists retired and others joined newly developing organisations
          • After 1848 employment in railways, industries and engineering boomed
        • Failed to gain six points of the People's Charter and for Parliament to debate them
          • Achieved a great deal and gained experience
            • Organised national movement, outings, soup kitchens
              • Ran schools and land schemes,held meetings and produced handbills, pamphlets and a news-paper
      • Important People
        • Fergus O'Connor
        • William Lovett
        • John Fielden
        • Thomas Attwood
        • John Frost

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