Charge Clouds

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  • Charge Clouds
    • charge clouds
      • shape of molecules/ions depends on number of pairs of electrons in outer shell of central atom
        • pairs of electrons can be shared in covalent bond or can be unshared
          • shared electrons are called bonding pairs, unshared electrons are called lone/non-bonding pairs
            • bonding & lone pairs of electrons exist as charge clouds
              • charge cloud is an area where there is a big chance of finding an electron
                • the electrons don't stay still - they whizz around charge cloud
    • electron pair repulsion
      • electrons are all negatively charged so charge clouds repel each other until they're as far apart as possible
        • sounds simple but shape of charge cloud affects how much it repels other charge clouds
          • lone pair charge clouds repel more than bonding pair charge clouds so bond angles are often reduced because bonding pairs are pushed together by lone-pair repulsion
            • valence shell electron pair repulsion theory
            • lone pair/lone pair angles are the biggest, lone pair/bonding pair the second biggest & bonding pair/bonding pair are the smallest


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