Chapter 53: Population Ecology

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  • Chapter 53: Population Ecology
    • Population Ecology: relating populations to their environment
      • populations: group of individuals of the same species who tend to live in the same area, tend to frequently interact with each other
        • density: population of the number of individuals in a certain area
          • mark and recapture method- catching and sampling an population twice by dividing the number of marked animals twice/ total animals sampled in the second population. that says the first population equals the second
          • other facts include immigration which involves the movement of the animals and emigration which includes death
        • dispersion- how these individuals are spaced out
          • clumping- working together in packs. (why? better chance of survival and higher chance of having babies)
          • uniform- even disperson and probaly the most rare. sometimes these are used because  of territorial purposes. (defending my land)
          • random- just few individuals scattering everywhere , not usually common
      • demographics- the study of the changing populations over time
        • use a life table to measure an the survival rates of populations over time
          • cohort- measure of an individual from birth until their death
            • survivorship curve- tells the amount of the populations that has survived over time. you take the exisiting population that has been alive and multiply by 1000 ( the max rate of the cohort)
              • caring capacity- maximum population that an environment can sustain
                • logistic population growth- the carrying capacity approaches 0 as carrying capacity is reached (K-N)/K equals the population growth
                  • leads to the S shaped growth where there is actually enough resources and materials for the population
                    • life history- schedule an organism develops. depends on essentially 3 things: when reproduction begins, how often the organism develops and how many offspring are produced per episode
                      • semelparity- one shot at lots of repudction while iteroparity is repeated reproduction
                        • think of K-selectiob as Kcompeting, while r selection is not
    • repoductive rate- only measure the rates  of females in a population, instead measures the number of females that are produced per age group
    • per capita birth date: Number of population/ time = number of births=deaths
      • J-shape: the curve that occurs when the population is reboundin
    • per capita rate of increase: r= b-m and zero population growth equals when the r=0 so the final equation equals N/T = rN


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