Chapter 6 - Respiration

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  • Created by: stef17
  • Created on: 28-04-16 08:52
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  • Chapter 6 - Respiration
    • ATP
      • Adenosine Triphosphate
      • Phosphorylated nucleotide
      • 30.5kJ per mole of ATP in hydrolysis reactions
      • 32 ATP molecules are made using aerobic respiration
    • Glycolysis
      • 1. Phosphate groups are added to glucose (this uses two ATP), forming a hexose bisphosphate molecule
      • 2. This splits to form two triose phosphate molecules
      • 3. These molecules are then oxidised to pyruvate, using dehydrogenase enzymes and produces NADH, two ADP molecules are also turned into two ATP molecules during this step
        • The pyruvate then enters a mitochondrion
    • The link reaction
      • Pyruvate is turned to acetate, in a two-step process, the first is decarboxylation and then removal of a hydrogen
        • This combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA
    • The Krebs cycle
      • 1. Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate
      • 2. The CoA is released and the citrate is gradually turned back to oxaloacetate
      • 3. This produces one FADH molecule, one ATP molecule and three NADH molecules
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
      • The extra hydrogens on NADH molecules are released then carried on an electron transport chain, this releases energy that is used to form ATP in ATP synthase (chemiosmosis)
      • O2 is the final electron acceptor, and combines with the electron and a H+ ion to form water
    • Anaerobic respiration
      • Done when there is no oxygen
      • In animals, pyruvate is turned to lactate by becoming the final electron accceptor
        • Lactate is turned into pyruvate again when oxygen becomes available (the oxygen debt is paid)
      • In microorganisms, pyruvate forms ethanol
      • Only 2 ATP molecules formed
    • Respiratory substrates
      • Glucose is the main one, but lipids and proteins can also be respired


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