Chapter 12 - Ecosystems

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  • Chapter 12 - Ecosystems
    • Energy flow through an ecosystem
      • Food chains and food webs
        • Trophic levels
        • Food chains can be joined together to form food webs
        • Detritivores (larger animals), decomposers (bacteria)
      • Energy losses
        • Not all light that lands on an ecosystem is converted to energy
        • Not all parts of plants are eaten by herbivores
          • Heat lost by these organisms through respiration
            • Not all parts of the prey are eaten by carnivores
        • Not all parts of the prey are eaten by carnivores
        • 10% of energy moves up through trophic levels
    • Biotic and abiotic factors
      • Biotic factors
        • Ones that involve other living organisms
        • Examples: feeding, predation, parasitism, mutualism and competition
      • Abiotic factors
        • Non-living factors
        • Examples: Temperature, light intensity, O2 concentration, CO2 concentration, water supply, pH, edaphic factors, availability of inorganic ions, humidity, wind speed
    • Productivity
      • Rate at which plants convert light energy into chemical potential energy
      • Photosynthetic efficiency: amount of light energy falling onto a crop/ amount of light energy converted to carbohydrate
    • Succession
      • Colonisation of new areas
      • Seral stages from pioneer plants to climax communities
      • Sampling
      • Sand dunes
      • Retreating glaciers
    • Nitrogen
      • Nitrogen cycle
      • Nitrogen fixation
        • Living organisms
          • Rhizobium
        • Atmosphere
          • Lightning
        • Haber process

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