Changing Family Patterns

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  • Created by: miapill
  • Created on: 16-12-13 10:53
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  • Changing Family Patterns
    • Divorce
      • Increasing - From 30,000 in 1965 to 170,000 in 2005
      • 7/10 applications for divorce are from women
      • Declining stigma and changing attitudes
        • MITCHELL & GOODY: Rapid decline in the stigma attached to divorce
        • As it becomes more common, it 'normalises'
      • Secularisation
        • Decline in the influence of religion in society
      • Rising expectations of marriage
        • FLETCHER: HIgher expectations are a major cause of higher divorce rates
        • If love dies, they'll be less happy to tolerate it and want to renew their search for Mr/Mrs Right
      • 40% of all marriages will end in divorce
      • The meaning of high divorce rates
        • FEMINISTS: Women can break free from oppression
        • THE NEW RIGHT: Divorce creates and under-class of welfare dependent lone parents.
        • POST-MODERNIST: Individuals have a freedom of choice
    • Parents and Children
      • Childbearing
        • 1 in 4 born outside marriage - decline in stigma, increase in cohabitation
        • Women are having children later leading to smaller families or even remaining childless - Women wish to pursue a career first
      • Lone-parent Families
        • 24% of all families - 1 in 4 children live in one
        • 90% headed by lone mother
        • A child in a lone-parent family is twice as likely to live in poverty
        • Reasons for changes
          • Increase in divorce and seperation with mother more likely to get custody of child
          • Decline in stigma to births outside of marriage
        • Welfare State
          • NEW RIGHT thinker MURRAY: Created a perverse incentive creating a dependency culture
          • CRITICS: Welfare benefits not generous enough - Lack of affordable childcare = 60% unemployed - Failure of fathers to pay maintenance
      • Stepfamilies
        • Children more likely to be from womans previous relationship than mans - women more likely to get custody
        • ALLAN & CROW: Tensions about contact with non-resident parent
        • Reasons for patterns
          • Increase in divorce
          • Greater risk of poverty - Stepfather still has to provide for previous family
          • Tensions = Different social norms
    • Partnerships
      • Marriage
        • Fewer people are marrying - More re marriages - People are marrying later - Couples are less likely to marry in a church
        • Reasons for changes
          • Less pressure to marry, freedom in choosing type of relationship
          • Secularisation and churches refuse to re-marry divorcees
          • Declining stigma to marriage alternatives
          • Changes in the position of women - Less economically dependent
          • Fear of divorce
          • Increase in re-marriages is due to the increase in divorces - More divorcees, more people to re-marry
      • Cohabitation
        • Unmarried couple in sexual relationship living together
        • Increasing - Fastest growing family type in the UK
          • Decline in stigma attached to sex outside marriage
          • Women economically independent
          • Secularisation and churches refuse to re-marry divorcees
          • Relationship with marriage
            • Cohabitation can be just a step on the way to getting married
              • 75% of cohabiting couples say they expect to marry each other
              • Like a trial marriage
            • CHESTER: Part of the marriage process
              • 75% of cohabiting couples say they expect to marry each other
            • Can be permanent - BEJIN: For young couples it's more equal and personal
              • SHELTON & JOHN: Women do less housework when cohabiting
      • Same-sex Relationships
        • Increased social acceptance
          • Social Policy: Age of consent equalised - Same rights to adopt
            • Same-sex Relationships
              • Increased social acceptance
                • Social Policy: Age of consent equalised - Same rights to adopt
                • 5-7% of adult population in same-sex relationship - hard to determine increase from past.
                • WEEKS: Gay families based of friendship and kinship - These 'chosen families' just as stable
                • ALLAN & CROW: More flexible due to absence of framework
          • 5-7% of adult population in same-sex relationship - hard to determine increase from past.
          • WEEKS: Gay families based of friendship and kinship - These 'chosen families' just as stable
          • ALLAN & CROW: More flexible due to absence of framework
        • One-person Households
          • Big rise
          • 3 in 10 households - Half are of pensioner age
          • Reasons for changes
            • Increase in divorce
            • Decline in numbers marrying or marrying later
            • Not enough partners in age group (pensioners)
          • DUNCAN & PHILLIPS: Living apart together
            • In significant relationship but not married or cohabiting
            • May be because they cannot afford to or want to keep their own home
      • Ethnic Differences
        • Immigration has created a greater ethnic diversity
        • Black Families
          • Highest proportion of lone parent households - mostly female headed
          • Can be traced back to slavery - Couples sold seperately, child went with mother
          • High rates of un-employment among black males - less able to provide for the family, resulting in higher rates of desertion or marital break down
            • MIRZA: To do with the high value of independence black women have.
      • The Extended Family Today
        • CHARLES: Extended family "all but extinct". Mothers and daughters maintain contact.
        • WILLMOTT: Continues to exist as a 'dispersed extended family' - geographically separated but frequent contact through calls and visits
        • Extended family continues to play the important role of emotional and financial support, even if they don't live together
    • 40% of all marriages will end in divorce
    • REYNOLDS: Statistics are misleading, these families can be stable and supportive
      • MIRZA: To do with the high value of independence black women have.
    • Asian Families
      • Ethnic Differences
        • Immigration has created a greater ethnic diversity
        • Black Families
          • Highest proportion of lone parent households - mostly female headed
          • Can be traced back to slavery - Couples sold seperately, child went with mother
          • High rates of un-employment among black males - less able to provide for the family, resulting in higher rates of desertion or marital break down
        • Larger than other ethnic groups
          • Can sometimes hold three generations but mostly nuclear although still live nearby
            • BALLARD: Extended family an important source of support during migration
      • CHARLES: Extended family "all but extinct". Mothers and daughters maintain contact.

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