Changing spaces;making places 

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  • Changing spaces;making places
    • Whats in a place?
      • places are defined by a combination of characteristics which change over time-these make up a place profile.
        • natural characteristics,demography,socio economic, cultural,    political, built environment
      • past and present connections
      • shifting flows of people e.g. migration
      • resources-different natural resources which help shape a place
    • How do we understand place?
      • places are given subjective meaning by people, individual characteristics influence perceptions
        • age-perceptions change with age, e.g young people prefer cities, older people prefer quiet
        • Gender-women may feel uncomfortable in male dominated areas
        • Gender- some places are built on the meanings of sexuality like the 'village' in Manchester
        • Religion- spiritual meanings can be given to places
        • role- people may perceive a place different depending on the situation e.g a mother may perceive the city centre as a place for entertainment but their perceptions of that place may be different during different times such as going to work.
      • emotional attachment to a place- how we experienced places in the past leaves us with emotions- positive/negative
      • globalisation and time space compression can alter a sense of place. Some people win and loose- some places able to take advantage and some are not, creates greater inequality between AC, and LIDCs
      • Places can be represented in formal and informal ways, we give meanings to places we've never personally experienced
        • Informal-media e.g films,photos,  literature- can be unrealistic, offer subjective views
        • Formal-e.g Census, offer rational perspectives
    • Economic change influences patterns of social inequality
      • how can social inequality be measured?
        • income-amount of money a person receives- relative poverty relates poverty to the spread of income across population
        • Gini Coefficient measures income distribution of countries residents
        • Housing-whats your home is like has a significant impact on quality of life e.g central Africa, low housing prices, undesirable, peoples aren't wealthy
        • Education-ACs and EDCs have high levels of literacy whereas LIDCs don't
        • employment- Poland and Spain appear to have highest rates of employment however unemployment in LIDCs in unknown
        • healthcare-most ACs offer good levels of healthcare
        • Access to services- people living in rural areas have less access however everywhere is becoming connected via technology
      • spacial patterns of social inequality-result from several factors
        • income-social wellbeing is ability to pay for goods. unemployment will increase social inequality
        • Housing-quality of accommodation will influence social inequality- cold cramped conditions cause ill health e.g slums in LIDCs gov. are struggling with amount of people requiring housing and lack of resources to provide this
        • Health-ill health associated with poor housing, poor diet. Access to healthcare facilities is important rural- more difficult to access
        • education- vital to raise standards of living and quality of life, great inequality between ACs and LIDCs and gender and rural and urban
    • Economic change
      • globalisation and structural economic change-global shift: ACs used to dominate manufacturing g now EDCs and LIDCs have them, most people in ACs are employed in services such as finance and health
      • Impacts of structural economic change- Job losses in ACs, environmental conditions got better so did health
        • call centres have relocated to places like Bangalore- ACs can concentrate of higher skilled jobs
      • Booms: associated with technical innovation and new industries, opportunities for people
      • recessions: fall in level of real national output, growth is negative however more educated cope better than those with basic qualifications.
      • Role of the government:  ACs spend in areas such as health and education where as LIDCs lack resources
        • Tax redistributes wealth from richer to poorer to reduce inequality
        • Subsidies such as free school meals for pooer families to help reduce inequality
        • planning makes sure the worst areas get upgraded first
    • How are places created
      • Role of GOV.
        • GIS to look at how places can be modelled,predict potential customer numbers when planning location a stores
        • Aim to attract inward investment so promote the UK, TNCs are important main aim for placemaking and regeneration

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