changing social class

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  • CHANGING SOCIAL CLASS
    • 1918-1939
      • UPPER CLASS
        • WW1 resulted in massive decline
          • heavy life toll
            • 12.9% of men in army died
            • 19% of sons and peers, 20.7% of  Old Etonians died
          • huge increase in income tax + death duties
            • estates £2m + had 40%
            • tax on incomes £2,500 + rose
            • death duties increased until 1979
        • war time restrictions on raising rents
          • + reduction in available labour due to conscription
          • country estates hard to run
            • gentry selling off 1/4 of land between 1918-1920
            • in 1937 1/3 of 4,000 listed gentry were landless
              • 1937 Country House Scheme
                • opened house to public for 60 days
        • loss of political power
          • fuelled by the rise of labour
          • 40% of MP's 1910 and  5% by 1945
      • MIDDLE CLASS
        • feared the erosion of material separating from working class
          • £250 annual salary = middle class
            • feared rising wages of working class
        • suffered from war time inflation
          • £100 in 1914 = £276 in November 1920
        • 1926 in Bromley Kent built 2m high wall to prevent WC passing through
        • spur to middle class employment
          • 34% growth in commercial and financial jobs
            • in London between 1911 and 1921
        • home ownership for MC 60% in 1939
          • compared to 20% of WC
      • LOWER CLASS
        • full employment in WW1
          • helped absorb the residuum
        • trade union membership increased 90% 1914-18
          • unions more inclusive after 1918
          • recession of 1920-22 = reduced membership by 40%
        • regional impacts of economic slump and depression
          • major division of those with and without work
            • work = rising wages
            • lower working hours = more leisure time
        • welfare reforms from 1914 gov.
          • reduce social stigma of state assistance
        • lower loss of life in WW1
          • reserved occupations e.g. coal miners
          • many turned away for ill health
            • 1918 - 10.3% rejected unfit for any service
            • 31.3% classed sick for combat
        • WW1 rationing
          • life expectancy rose 1911-1921
            • 49-56 men and 53-60 women
    • WORLD WAR 2 + 1945-1979
      • UPPER CLASS
        • rise of satire and rising education
          • = social mobility and undermined defernce for authority
        • real wages improved
          • growth of affordable goods and cars blurred class boundaries
        • lost political and social power
          • e.g. selling country homes
          • popularity of estates reinforced
            • upstairs downstairs 1971
              • paid entry fees to national trust
                • to help preserve the landed elite
      • MIDDLE CLASS
        • WW2 brought about job opportunities
          • respectable jobs in science, tech etc.
            • increased from 70,000 1931 to 1.25m 1951
          • expansion of clerking jobs for women
            • 170,000 1911 to 1.4m 1951
        • led the way in domestic leisure
          • car ownership
            • butlin and caravan holidays
          • had access to package holidays
          • afford TVs and domestic leisure
        • lack of respect for establishment
          • rise in middle class jobs and educational opportunities improved
      • LOWER CLASS
        • WW2 seen as turning point compared to WW1
          • due to sustained and effective gov. intervention after 1945
            • welfare and healthcare provisions
        • equality and experience of WW2
          • improved their quality of life
        • however gains failed to materialise
          • many still lived in squalid houses with poor diets
            • slum clearance didn't start till 1950's
            • landlords took advantage of tennants
          • housing schemes e.g. construction of mod-cons
            • people felt isolated
              • lack of local amenities
              • lack of social interaction
            • e.g. Pollock in Glasgow = dreary places to live
        • inequality of wealth
          • 0.1% owned 33% of wealth but bottom 75% had less than £100 each
        • REGIONAL DIFFERENCE

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