chasnges to rural living conditions

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    • the tsars did nothing for rural housing
    • the standard housing for peasants was the IZBA
      • this was a single roomed wooden hut, heated by an oven which also acted as a sleeping platform
      • both animals and people lived in these huts
      • conditions were cramped, cold, damp and dirty
      • they were cheap to make and ended up just making the lives of the peasants worse
    • there was some change in the way peasants were housed
      • STALIN
      • 'special' housing blocks were constructed on the edge of the new collective farms
      • Kulaks were often allocated the worst housing in barracks or forced to take tented shelter in the fields
    • the construction of self -contained agro towns was ordered
      • these were cheaply  and quickly built  and so were of a poor quality
      • 1891
        • CAUSE: adverse weather conditions, the panic selling of grain surpluses to counter the impact of the new consumer goods tax
        • EFFECT: over 350,000 people died
      • 1914 - 1918
        • CAUSE: disruption to trade and transport during the first world war. Made worse by the treaty of Brest-Litovsk
        • EFFECT: valuable grain producing areas in the Ukraine were lost
      • 1921
        • CAUSE: terrible winters, severe droughts, destruction of transport infrastructures   due to the civil war.
          • Made worse by Lenin's slowness in responding to the crisis and his reluctance to accept aid from the American relief army
        • EFFECT: 5 million people died
      • 1932 - 1934
        • CAUSE: harsh winters, wars, disruption, revolutions. Made worse by the high levels of repression forced on the people by Stalin.
          • for example the death penalty was imposed on people for stealing grain, that legally they owned themselves
        • EFFECT: About 5 million dead, similar to 1921


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