Challenges to the Tsar

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  • Challenges to the Tsars
    • Political
      • autocratic rule
      • He wants to run a modern country with an old fashioned regieme
    • Alexander 2nd
      • Alexanders reforms led to an expectation for reform
      • ZEMSTVA - wanted a national party
      • Reduced censorship
      • Emancipation of the serfs 1860 - prevented farming reforms
    • Economic
      • Agriculture
        • 80% peasantry
        • problems of mirs did not encourage efficient farming
        • 1880's 1/3 of land lay fallon
          • 1880s 1/3 farmland produce surplus
        • 1883 peasant land bank
        • famine of 1891 followed by 1892 + 1893
      • Industry
        • By 1900 1/2 industry workforce employed in factories more than 1000 workers
          • doubled in 1890-1914 1m to 2 m
        • Factories made it easy to spread discontent
    • Transport
      • Poor communication between cities
      • No way to move food, resources, workers
    • Growing Population
      • only 1/3 or population could read
      • 1815 - 45m 1914 170m
      • Problem of feeding population with inefficient farming and poor transport
    • Nationalities
      • 44% Russian
      • Poles especially resist - They want an independent Poland
    • Problem Raising Finance
      • Indirect taxes on vodka, sugar, tea, tobacco, matches
      • The poor bought these the most and so were heavily taxed
      • Increased disontent

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