- challenges to aug. theodicy
- God may not have caused evil but he allows it
- we could have been made to freely do the right thing - liberty of spontaneity
- free will does not justify innocent suffering
- fall from grace is unconvincing
- humanity has evolved spiritually and morally not regressed(fallen)
- natural evil existed before the fall
- not a result of moral sin
- natural evil being good from God's viewpoint is not comforting
- redefining God's goodness obscures the issue
- where did knowledge of evil come from if it wasn't created? a priori?
- is this amount of evil necessary?
- innocenrt suffering is unjustified
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