Challenges to the Empire(Part 2)

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  • Created by: lou9119
  • Created on: 03-05-18 08:55
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  • Challenges to the Empire (part 2)
    • Russian Campaign (1812)
      • Continental blockade was a factor in the breakdown in relations between France and Russia. Tsar Alexander I withdrew in 1810.
        • Other factors:
          • NB's Austrian marriage.
          • Rival ambitions to seize turkish territory (Istanbul and the Balkans)
          • Rival ambitions in the Baltic (NB annexed the Duchy and Tsar annexed Swedish Finland)
          • Disagreements over the future of the Grand Duchy of Poland
      • NB assembled an army of 600,000 men, less than half were French (Austrians, Danes, Germans, Italians, Lithuanians, Prussians, Poles, Portuguese, Spanish and Swiss.)
      • June, NB invades Russia. Despite victory at Borodino (Sep) the occupation at Moscow failed, Tsar refused to sue for peace and NB was forced to retreat due to army deaths.
        • Reason for failure:
          • Russians refused to fight the formal battle.
          • Russians adopted a scorched-earth policy.
          • Russian skirmishes constantly attacked, damaged morale.
          • Russian army was larger.
          • NB lacked clear strategic objective.
          • NB could not control every detail; couldn't work with such a large army.
          • Poor supply and medicine meant that thousands died or incapacitated.
          • Stayed in Moscow for over a month before deciding to retreat.
          • Poor planning meant his men couldn't handle Russian winter.
        • When the grande armee reached GR it was reduced to 120,000, NB left to return to FR to restore his position.
    • War of 6th Coalition (1813-14)
      • Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria.
      • 1) Common aim to liberate GR. 2) Included all four major EU powers. 3) Members reformed their armies and tactics. 4) FR in decline. 5) Adopted a unified military strategy.
      • Fighting ended in 1813 at the Battle of Leipzig/ Battle of the Nations.
        • NB outnumbered and forced out of GR. Four major powers agreed on the Treaty of Chaumont in 1814. Agreement not to make a separate peace but to continue fighting until NB was defeated,


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