Ch 1 - Participation in Sport

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    • Physique
      • somatotypes
        • ECTOMORPH tall and thin body type- narrow shoulders and narrow hips. ideal for long distance running and high jump
        • ENDOMORPH pear shaped body , wide hips and wide shoulders heavier weight. ideal for weight lifting and shot put
        • MESOMORPH wide shoulders and narrow hips. wedge shaped body. ideal for swimming and sprinting
    • Age + Sport
      • flexibility
        • decreases with age
      • strength
        • decreases with age (don't achieve maximum strength until in 20's
      • Oxygen Capacity
        • decreases with age-increased blood pressure
      • skill
        • increases with age
      • recovery
        • takes longer as you get older
    • Disability + Sport
      • most sports have been ADAPTED so the disabled can take part
        • Adaptations
          • rule changes ( double bounces in wheelchair tennis) or increased pitch size
        • Access
          • ramps, lifts, bigger changing rooms and wider doors are made in leisure centres
        • Parking
          • spaces near entrance and wider and longer spaces
        • provision
          • specialist coaching required for the teachers and those that are disabled
    • Gender + Sport
      • physique
        • men naturally larger with more muscle. women wider hips
      • stamina
        • men have more stamina
      • strength
        • men are mainly stronger - more muscle mass
      • bone stucture
        • females are more prone to osteoperosis
      • flexibility
        • females are more flexible
      • fat
        • females have increased amounts of body fat
    • Environment + sport
      • weather
        • hot and sunny
          • dehydration
          • tough to serve in the sun
          • sun burn
        • wet and  slippery
          • slower sprinting spped
            • hard to change directon
          • decreases speed and accuracy
          • heavier clothing
      • pollution
        • clogs up air with less oxygen available so work of muscles becomes harder
      • high altitude
        • less oxygen in air so body has to breath faster.naturally produce more red blood cells. at sea level again there is more RBC's and higher oxygen intake
      • humidity
        • increases sweat. more chance of dehydration
      • terrain
        • rocky ground , icy etc will slow the performer down
    • risk + challenge
      • risk
        • the possibility of suffering harm loss or danger
          • e.g. climbing  or canoein
      • challenge
        • a test of your ability in a demanding situation
          • e.g. surfing or rugby
    • training
      • pre season
        • concentrates on fitness and techniques
        • time leading  up to comp
      • peak season
        • focus on skill, fitness and competing
        • main competition period
      • post season
        • rest and recovery, fitness still a priority




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