CH2 - Inorganic Chemistry

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  • CH2 - Inorganic Chemistry
    • Periodic Table
      • An element id placed into a period according to the number of occupied shells present in its atoms.
        • E.G. Calcium/Ca is in period 4 because it has 4 occupied shells.
      • An element is placed into a group according to the number of outermost electrons present in its atoms.
        • E.G. Oxygen is in group 6 because its atoms have 6 outermost electrons.
      • Trends Within the Periodic Table
        • Ionisation Energies
          • 1st Ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one mole of outermost electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of uni-positive ions.
          • Down A Group
            • 1st I.E decreases
              • Outermost electron is progressively further from the nucleus.
              • Outermost electron is more shielded from the nucleus by inner electrons.
                • This outweighs the increasing nuclear charge.
          • Across A Period
            • 1st I.E increases
              • An electron is being added to the same energy level as you go across.
                • No change in shielding or distance from the nucleus.
              • Increasing nuclear charge
        • Electro-negativity
          • Down A Group
            • Electro-negativity decreases
              • Shared pair of electrons that make up the covalent bond are further from the nucleus.
                • They are less attracted to the nucleus.
          • Across A Period
            • Electro-negativity increases
              • Nuclear charge increases
                • Shared pair of electrons making up the covalent bond are more strongly attracted to the nucleus.
          • The ability of an atom to attract the shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
        • Melting Point
          • Down A Metallic Group
            • Melting points decrease
            • Attraction between the uni-positive ions and the sea of delocalised electrons is the metallic bond.
            • Positive ions increase in size as you descend the group.
            • Because the 1+ charge is spread over an increasingly large area it is less effective in attracting the delocalised electrons.
              • Positive ions have a lower 'charge to size ratio' as you descend the group.
          • Down A Non-Metallic Group
            • Melting points increase
            • Molecules  increase in size as you go down a group.
            • Halogens exist as non-polar diatomic molecules, X2
            • Number of electrons present increases.
            • Greater instantaneous dipole - instantaneous dipole attractions between molecules of iodine (I2) than between molecules of fluorine (F2).
              • At room temp. I2 is solid and F2 is a gas.
    • Metallic Oxides
      • Basic (alkaline) oxides
      • They react with ACIDS to form SALT & WATER.
      • Na2O + 2HCl
        • 2NaCl + H2O
    • Non-Metallic Oxides
      • Acidic oxides
      • They react with WATER to form an ACID.
      • CaCl2 + H2O
        • CaO + 2HCl
    • Redox Reactions
      • Electron Transfer
        • Reduction Is Gain of electrons
          • RIG
        • Oxidation Is Loss of electrons
          • OIL
      • Oxidation States
        • Oxidation - the oxidation state of the element increases.
        • Reduction - The oxidation state of the element decreases.
      • Using electron transfer to identify redox reactions
        • Mg(s)+CuSO4(aq)
          • MgSO4(aq)+Cu(s)
          • Mg (0) + Cu2+
            • Mg2+ + Cu (0)
              • Copper has been reduced because it has gained electrons.
            • Magnesium has been oxidised because it has lost electrons.
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    • SO4(2-) is not needed in the ionic equation because it is a spectator ion.
      • It doesn't change its charge.

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