OCR Computing Chapter 1

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  • Ch. 1 - Fundamentals
    • System Types
      • General Purpose: used for lots, can load apps
      • Dedicated: perform one function
      • Control: don't produce output, control machines
      • Embedded: part of a larger system
      • Expert: make decisions like a human
    • Standards
      • Ensures fair access to markets
      • opens markets to comp. lowers costs
      • Easier to learn new systems - all similar
      • Minimise wastage
      • Exist for: languages, OS, data formats, interfaces
      • Equipment from diff. manufacturer work together
    • Reliability
      • Mistakes cause expensive errors, data loss, privacy loss, down time
      • Data Integrity: Data is consistent and accurate. Reflects reality
      • Compromised by human errors, bugs, malware and fires, etc.
      • Reduce risks by: back ups, user access levels, rules to prevent input of invalid data
      • Testing increases reliability but is long and expensive & software is complex
    • General
      • Def: Hardware & software - does a task
      • Inputs, processes, outputs
      • Separated from outside by interfaces
      • Leads to:better & cheaper manufacture, faster access to info, better decision making, new ways to communicate
    • Ethical/Legal Issues
      • UK Data Protection Act  needed because it is easy to copy and transmit data
      • Challenges: privacy, security, copyright, terrorism
      • Data Protection Laws: allow people to view/ change/ choose how to use data about them
      • Data is protected from unauthorised access, deleted wen it is no longer needed, only collected for specific purposes
      • Stopping cyber crime - tricky bc internet crosses borders
    • Environmental Impacts
      • Less need for travel & transport of goods
      • Reduce energy: virtual servers, automatic standby, energy saving screens
      • Robots make goods more accurately - less waste
      • Old computers burned in developing countries - poison
      • Computers use a lot of energy


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