Censorship and propaganda

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  • Censorship and Propaganda
    • Propaganda
      • The Press
        • Newspapers encouraged but had to contain the Nazi message - journalists were often briefed by Nazi and sometimes even told what to write
        • Every newspaper = the Nazi message
      • Universities
        • Research was directed by the Nazi party - all academics had to agree to the views of the party
          • (e.g. "All European science is the fruit of Aryan thought) - stated by Dresden Institute of Physics
      • The arts
        • Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Culture
          • Writers, musicians, artists and actors had to be members
        • Wagner's music was promoted as his music related to German historical legends
        • Art that depicted 'perfect' German men and woman was encouraged by Nazi
        • Theatre with Nazi messages was promoted by Nazis - cheap tickets available to encourage people to hear these messages
      • Radio + cinema
        • Nazis frequently broadcast on the radio
          • Cheap radios sold and placed in public places like cafes
            • Most radios in Europe
        • Nazi films made
          • (e.g. Hitlerjunge Quex - 1933)
      • Sport
        • Sport was used to make Germany look good
          • (e.g. huge new Olympic stadium - was the largest in the world until 1936 Berlin Olympics)
        • Germany won the most gold medals (33)
      • Hitler's image
        • Mass rallies were organised by Goebbels every year at Nuremburg
        • The figurehead/ image of Hitler was a vital element in Nazi propaganda
        • A key principle of National Socialism was a central, single political figurehead and that man was Hitler
        • Propaganda presented him as strong and decisive but also as a caring father figure
          • (as if he were a father to the German nation)
    • Censorship
      • The Press
        • Articles critical of Nazis were not allowed = no free press
      • Universities
        • Research or publications contrary to Nazi views were forbidden
      • Sport
        • Hitler refused to present the medals to black Americans that won their events
          • Jesse Owens broke 11 Olympic records and won 4 gold medals
      • The arts
        • Artists (etc) disapproved of by the Nazi party were banned
        • Books were censored - millions of books from universities and libraries were burned
          • (e.g. in Berlin on one occasion 20,000 books by Jewish and communist writers (e.g. Freud) were banned)
        • Music was censored - jazz banned because it was seen as 'black music' and therefore inferior
      • Hitler's image
        • Any item in the news or films or books (etc) that appeared to criticise Hitler was banned and the above censorship ensured that Hitler's image was maintained and not publicly questioned
      • Radio + cinema
        • All radio stations under Nazi control
        • From 1934, German film makers had to send new plots to Goebbels for approval
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